What does the endocrine system do?
Secretes hormones. Ductless glands. Hormones secreted enter the blood. Causes tissue and glands to respond and create chemical reactions. Slower than nerve impulses.
What is needed for communication to take place?
Hormones and receptors sites to communicate between different glands.
What is a target organ?
An organ effected by a hormone.
How do non-steroid hormones work?
Receptor molecules in cell membrane Adenylate cytase causes ATP to create cAMP cAMP makes protein kineses active Protein kinese activates subtrate Causes cellular changes.
How do steroidal hormones work?
The steroid penetrates the cell membrane and binds to a receptor in the nucleus.
Describe the function and anatomy of the Pituitary Gland
Located at the base of the brain.
Has an anterior and posterior parts.
The anterior arises from roof of the mouth.
The posterior arises from the brain.
What hormones does the anterior pituitary gland secrete?
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) PRL (prolactin) ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) LH (luteinizing hormone) FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) GH (growth hormone)
What hormones does the posterior pituitary gland secrete?
ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)
-Targets prostate gland, uterine smooth muscle and mammary glands.
What function does the thyroid serve?
Increases rate of energy released from carbohydrates (metabolism). Increases protein synthesis. Increases growth of individual. Stimulates nervous system.
What are some effects of hypothyroidism?
A goiter (bulge) develops. In children, physical and mental growth may be effected (cretinism). Mixedema in adults (swelling/puffy)
What are some effects hyperthyroidism?
Develops Grave’s Disease. A goiter always develops. Exophthalamus (eyes bulging).
What does the parathyroid gland do?
Secretes parathyroid hormone. Helps release calcium from bones and lower blood calcium levels. Promotes osteoclastic activity.
What does the pancreas do?
Secretes digestive enzymes that helps break down proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Made of mostly acinar cells. Has Islets of Langerhans which are circular, lighter areas of cells.
Alpha cells secrete glucagon, beta cells secretes insulin, delta cells secrete somatostatin.
What does the adrenal gland do?
The sympathetic nervous system attaches and stimulates the medulla. Increase heart rate, blood flow, air passaged dilate, promotes glycogen to glucose in the liver, enables “flight or fight” response. The hormones from the medulla are not necessary for live.
What are the parts of the adrenal cortex?
Outer: Glomerulosa. Middle: Fasiculata. Inner: Reticularis. All three parts secrete steroids. The outer layer secretes mineral steroids that helps regulate electrolytes. The middle layer secretes cortisol that is involved with metabolism of carbs, lipids and fats. The inner layer secretes gonado corticodes.
What are some traits of hyposecretion in the adrenal gland?
Addison’s disease. Sodium level drops, blood pressure drops, skin pigmentation darknes.
What are some traits of hypersecretion in the adrenal gland?
Cushing’s disease. Tissue protein becomes wasted, blood glucose level goes up, tissue fluid goes up, depresses immune system.
What is the composition of whole blood?
Plasma (plasma proteins 7%, other solutes 1%, Water 92%). Formed elements (platelets .1%, White blood cells .1%, red blood cells 99.9%).
What is hemoglobin?
“blood protein”. Contains iron which allows it to carry oxygen. It also makes the blood red. Oxygen + hemoglobin = oxyhemoglobin. Some animals have copper instead of iron which turns blood blue. 98% of oxygen in body is carried by hemoglobin. Aldo carries CO2 (about 20%) HCO3 is carried in plasma.
What is a megakaryote cell?
A cell here platelets come from. The platelets pinch off the cell.
What is Erythropoiesis?
A process which produces red blood cells (erythrocytes). It is stimulated by decreased O2 in circulation, which is detected by the kidneys, which then secrete the hormone erythropoietin.
Where is the most iron found?
Found in hemoglobin.
What is anemia and what are the effects?
Anemia is a lower oxygen carrying capacity. Iron is the main deficiency. Some effects are chills, fatigue, shortness of breath.
What are some forms of anemia?
Hemorrhagic (blood less), Hemolytic (destruction of red blood cells), Aplastic (destruction of red bone marrow), Pernicious (vitamin b12 deficiency).
What is polycythemia?
Excessive red blood cells. Blood becomes thick. Can be caused by cancer in blood marrow.
Describe white blood cells.
Produced by macrophages and lymph cells.
What are some white blood cell disorders?
Leukocytosis (excessive white blood cells), Leukopenia (Insufficient white blood cells, caused by certain drugs), Leukemia (Cancer. Named for abnormality of cell).
What are thrombocytes?
Platelets formed my megakaryotes. Thrombopoietin stimulates production of thrombocytes.
What is hemostasis?
Blood stops own loss.
What are 3 ways blood stops its own loss?
Vascular spasm, platelet plug formation and coagulation.
Describe vascular spasm.
Happens in small blood vessels. Vessel will constrict to stop blood loss. Vessels will shut themselves down when faced with trauma.
Describe platelet plug formation.
Platelets start clumping together when they come into contact with a rough surface. Fibrin starts intermeshing with platelets. Can happen in intact blood vessels.
Fibrin is made from fibrinogen, which requires thrombin to active. Thrombin is activated by a prothrombin activator that is needed to turn prothrombin into thrombin. There are 13 factors involved with clotting.
What are the different blood types?
A blood cells are type A blood and have antibody B. B blood cells are type B blood and have antibody A. A+B cells are type AB and have no antigens. O blood cells are type O and have both A+B antibodies.