Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology Deck (123)
Different parts of the alimentary canal (6)
mouth and oropharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus
3 parts of small intestine
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
3 parts of large intestine
caecum, appendix, colon
accessory structures of the GI tract (4)
salivary glands, the pancreas, the liver and gall bladder
4 activities of the digestive tract
motility, secretion, digestion, absorption
4 layers of the digestive tract wall
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
What is contained within the mucosa?
epithelial cells, exocrine cells, endocrine gland cells, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae
What is contained within the submucosa?
connective tissue, larger blood and lymph vessels, glands, nerve networks
What is contained within the muscularis externa?
circular muscle layer, nerve network (myenteric plexus), longitudinal muscle layer
What is contained within the serosa?
Contraction of the circular muscle causes the lumen to become...
narrower and longer
Contraction of longitudinal muscle contraction causes the lumen to become...
shorter and fatter
Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled by...
There are two nervous supplies to the GI tract - intrinsic and extrinsic - the intrinsic is...
the enteric nervous system
There are two nervous supplies to the GI tract - intrinsic and extrinsic - the extrinsic is the...
autonomic nervous system
electrical waves (____ _____) pass spontaneously through the stomach, the small intestine and the large intestine
Which cells drive the slow wave activity of the gut?
interstitial cells of cajal
where are interstitial cells of cajal?
between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers, also in the submucosa
3 types of stimuli in the GI tract determining basal electrical rhythm
neuronal, hormonal, mechanical
two plexus in the enteric nervous system?
myenteric plexus, submucous plexus
the myenteric plexus mediates
motility and sphincters
the submucosal plexus
epithelia and blood vessels
5major motility patterns within the GI tract
peristalisis, segmentation, colonic mass movement, migrating motor complex, tonic contracions
a wave of relaxation, followed by contraction that normally goes in the aboral direction
mixing and churning movements - rhythmic contractions of the circular muscle layer
colonic mass movement is...
powerful sweeping contraction that forces faeces into the rectum
migrating motor complex is...
powerful sweeping contraction from stomach to terminal ileum
low pressure tonic contractions are within
organs with storage function
high pressure tonic contractions are...