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Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology Deck (123)
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1

Different parts of the alimentary canal (6)

mouth and oropharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus

2

3 parts of small intestine

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

3

3 parts of large intestine

caecum, appendix, colon

4

accessory structures of the GI tract (4)

salivary glands, the pancreas, the liver and gall bladder

5

4 activities of the digestive tract

motility, secretion, digestion, absorption

6

4 layers of the digestive tract wall

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa

7

What is contained within the mucosa?

epithelial cells, exocrine cells, endocrine gland cells, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae

8

What is contained within the submucosa?

connective tissue, larger blood and lymph vessels, glands, nerve networks

9

What is contained within the muscularis externa?

circular muscle layer, nerve network (myenteric plexus), longitudinal muscle layer

10

What is contained within the serosa?

connective tissue

11

Contraction of the circular muscle causes the lumen to become...

narrower and longer

12

Contraction of longitudinal muscle contraction causes the lumen to become...

shorter and fatter

13

Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled by...

gap junctions

14

There are two nervous supplies to the GI tract - intrinsic and extrinsic - the intrinsic is...

the enteric nervous system

15

There are two nervous supplies to the GI tract - intrinsic and extrinsic - the extrinsic is the...

autonomic nervous system

16

electrical waves (____ _____) pass spontaneously through the stomach, the small intestine and the large intestine

slow waves

17

Which cells drive the slow wave activity of the gut?

interstitial cells of cajal

18

where are interstitial cells of cajal?

between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers, also in the submucosa

19

3 types of stimuli in the GI tract determining basal electrical rhythm

neuronal, hormonal, mechanical

20

two plexus in the enteric nervous system?

myenteric plexus, submucous plexus

21

the myenteric plexus mediates

motility and sphincters

22

the submucosal plexus

epithelia and blood vessels

23

5major motility patterns within the GI tract

peristalisis, segmentation, colonic mass movement, migrating motor complex, tonic contracions

24

peristalsis is...

a wave of relaxation, followed by contraction that normally goes in the aboral direction

25

segmentation is...

mixing and churning movements - rhythmic contractions of the circular muscle layer

26

colonic mass movement is...

powerful sweeping contraction that forces faeces into the rectum

27

migrating motor complex is...

powerful sweeping contraction from stomach to terminal ileum

28

low pressure tonic contractions are within

organs with storage function

29

high pressure tonic contractions are...

sphincters

30

The muscles of mastication are supplied by which cranial nerve?

CN V3 - mandibular branch of the trigeminal