Anatomy and Physiology Flashcards Preview

Neuro-Oncology > Anatomy and Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology Deck (76):
1

What consists of the central nervous system?

Brain and spinal cord

2

What consists of the peripheral nervous system?

Cranial nerves and ganglia
Spinal nerves and dorsal root ganglia
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nerves
Enteric nervous system

3

What does the diencephalon consist of?

Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Epithalamus

4

What does the brain stem consist of?

Midbrain, Pons, Medulla

5

What are the layer of the meninges?

Dura, Arachnoid, Pia

6

What is the Choroid Plexus?

is a vascular tuff that produces CSF in the ventricles

7

What is the axial plane?

horizontal cross section of the brain

8

What is the transverse plane?

horizontal cross section of the brain

9

What is the coronal plane?

Tiara cross section of the brain

10

What is the sagittal plane?

Bow and arrow cross section of the brain

11

What cells make up the nervous system?

neurons (nerve cells) and glial cells (support cells)

12

What does a neuron consist of?

axon, dendrites, and cell bodies

13

What does a dendrite do?

receive input into the cell

14

What do axons do?

carry outputs

15

What is a synapses?

The place where communication between neurons occur (axons and dendrites)

16

What are axons covered with?

myelin sheaths

17

What do oligodendrocytes do?

form myelin sheaths

18

What are Schwann cells?

they are cells that form myelin sheaths in the PNS

19

What are neurotransmitters and their function?

they are chemical released at the presynaptic terminal and they either excite or inhibit action potentials at the post synaptic clef

20

What is glutamate?
What does it affect?

an excitatory neurotransmitter; the entire CNS

21

What is GABA?
What does it affect?

An inhibitory neurotransmitter; the entire CNS

22

What is acetylcholine?
What does it affect?

a neurotransmitter; autonomic nervous system (causing parasympathetic effects)

23

What is norepinephrine?
What does it affect?

a neurotransmitter; sympathetic ganglia, causing sympathetic effects

24

What is dopamine?
What does it affect?

.

25

What is serotonin?
What does it affect?

.

26

What is white matter?

areas of the CNS covered mainly with myelinated axons

27

What is gray matter?

Areas made mainly of cell bodies

28

What are clusters of gray matter called?

nuclei

29

What are some examples of nuclei?

basal ganglia, thalamus, and cranial nerve nuclei

30

What is a commissure?

a white matter pathway that connects structures on the left and right sides of the CNS

31

What are ganglia in the PNS?

clusters of cell bodies

32

What is afferent?

carrying a signal toward a structure

33

What is efferent?

carrying a signal away from a structure

34

How many pair of cranial nerves are there?

12

35

How many cervical vertebrae?

7

36

How many thoracic vertebrae?

12

37

How many lumbar vertebrae?

5

38

How many cervical nerve pair?

8

39

How many thoracic nerve pair?

12

40

How many lumbar nerve pair?

5

41

How many sacral nerve pair?

5

42

How many coxxix nerve pair?

1

43

What is the brachial plexus?

elaborate meshwork of nerves from the cervical and thoracic (arms)

44

What is the lumbosacral plexus?

elaborate meshwork of nerves from the lumbar and sacral (legs)

45

Brain crevices are called?

sulci

46

Brain bumps between sulci are called?

gyri

47

What does the Central Sulcus of Rolando separate?

The frontal lobe from the parietal lobe

48

What does the Sylvian fissure separate?

The frontal lobe from the temporal lobe

49

What does the Parieto-occipital Sulcus separate?

The parietal lobe from the occipital lobe

50

What is the corpus callosum?

C-shaped band of white matter connecting both cerebral hemispheres

51

What are the three parts of the corpus callosum?

Splenium (Back), Genu (Front), Rostrum (Bottom)

52

Where does the primary motor cortex lie?

on the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe

53

What does the precentral gyrus control?

controls movement on the opposite part of the body

54

Where does the primary somatosensory cortex lie?

on the post central gyrus of the parietal lobe

55

What is pyramidal decussation?

The crossing over of fibers in the corticospinal tract

56

What does contralateral and ipsilateral mean?

contralateral (opposite side) ipsilateral (same side)

57

What are upper motor neurons?

motor neurons from the cortex that project to the spinal cord or brainstem

58

What are lower motor neurons?

located in the anterior horns of the central gray matter or brainstem motor nuclei; they project out of the CNS via the anterior spine roots or cranial nerves to finally reach muscle cells in the periphery

59

What is somatic sensation?

conscious perceptions of touch, pain, temperature, vibration, and propriception

60

What is proprioception?

limb or joint sense

61

Somatic sensory posterior column pathways convey?

convey proprioception, vibration sense, and fine, discriminative touch

62

Somatic sensory anterior column pathways convey?

convey pain, temperature sense, and crude touch

63

What does the thalamus do?

relay center

64

CN I

Olfactory (smell)

65

CN II

Optic (Vision)

66

CN III

Ocular motor (pupil constriction, eye movements up)

67

CN IV

Trochlear (superior oblique muscle move downward and inward)

68

CN V

Trigeminal (Facial sensation)

69

CN VI

Abducens (lateral rectus; eye abduction)

70

CN VII

Facial (muscles of facial expression)

71

CN VIII

Vestibulocochlear; Acoustic (Hearing)

72

CN IX

Glossopharyngeal (Taste on posterior tongue; stylopharyngeus muscle)

73

CN X

Vagus (swallowing, voice box, parasympathetic)

74

CN XI

Spinal accessory (Sternomastoid muscle; upper trapezius muscle)

75

CN XII

Hypoglossal (Intrinsic muscles of the tongue)

76

What is the limbic system?

regulation of emotions, memory, appetitive drives, and autonomic and neuroendocrine control