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Flashcards in Anatomy Basics Deck (77):
1

Describe bone in relation to:
Rigidity
Permeability
Vascularity
Sources of nourishment

Rigid
Not permeable
Contains vessels
Nutrients from blood supply

2

What cells are found in cartilage?
What is the name of the immature version of these cells?

Chondrocytes
Chondroblasts.

3

Where do chondrocytes live?

Space in ECM called a lacuna.

4

What do chondrocytes do?

Secrete and maintain ECM in cartilage

5

What is cartilage ECM made of?

75% water and 25% type 2 collagen and proteoglycans (made of GAGs)

6

How does type 2 collagen differ from type 1?

It is finer and is not linear but makes a 3D meshwork

7

What is the most common type of collagen in connective tissues?

Type 1

8

What are the three different types of cartilage?

Hyaline
Elastic
Fibrocartilage

9

What is the most common type of cartilage?

Hyaline

10

What colour is hyaline cartilage?

Blue-White translucent

11

What colour is elastic cartilage?

Yellow

12

What colour is Fibrocartilage?

White

13

What is Fibrocartilage and what is it made of?

A hybrid between tendon and hyaline cartilages made of bands of type 1 collagen with rows of chondrocytes and small amounts of ECM.

14

What is the composition of bone?

10% water
2 non collagen proteins
23 collagen
65 minerals

15

What is the process of bone growth called and what happens?

Endochondral ossification. A small hyaline cartilage version grows and turns into bone

16

What are the different regions of bone starting at the head and moving to the shaft?

Epiphysis
Epiphyseal growth plate
Metaphysis
Diaphysis

17

What two bone types are there in bone?

An outer cortex of compact bone and an inner medulla of spongy/trabecular/cancellous bone.

18

What are the two types of canals in bone called?

Haversion longitudinally and volkmanns transversely

19

What is the name for one haversion canal and its surrounding rings of lamellar bone?

An osteon

20

What two big vessels cross the periosteum and carry blood to/from the medullary cavity?

Nutrient artery and vein.

21

What four types of bone cells are there?

Osteoprogenitor
Osteoblasts
Osteocytes
Osteoclasts

22

Where are osteoprogenitor cells located and what do they do?

On bone surfaces e.g. Under the periosteum.
They serve as a reserve pool for osteoblasts

23

Where are osteoblasts located and what do they do?

On the surface of developing bone. They form bone.

24

What is an osteocyte?

A bone cell trapped within the bone matrix.

25

What are osteoclasts and where are they found?

Found on the surface of bone and they resorp bone.

26

What can osteoclasts fuse to form and why?

A single giant cell. Due to belief that they are derived from macrophage line.

27

What is the name of the structure formed during bone remodelling?

Cutting cone.

28

What is the name given to the collection of osteoblasts and osteoclasts that remodel bone at a specific site?

Basic multicellular unit.

29

What happens in a cutting cone?

Osteoclasts drill down into bone making a tunnel which a blood vessel then grows down. It brings osteoblasts which line the tunnel and lay down lamellar bone. This continues until only the space of a haversion canal remains.

30

What surrounds an osteon?

A cement line

31

What is the difference between lamellar and woven bone?

In lamellar the fibres are organised and all go in one direction. In woven bone the fibres are haphazard. Woven is not as strong a lamellar.

32

When do we see woven bone?

It is the first bone laid down during healing of a bone. It is then replaced by lamellar bone.

33

How are bony features developed?

When an adjacent structure puts tensile pressure on it during development e.g. A foramen forming around a vessel.

34

What to parts are there to the skeleton?

The axial and appendicular.

35

What is the axial skeleton comprised of?

Skull, rib cage and spine.

36

What comprises the appendicular skeleton?

The pectoral girdle, the pelvic girdle, the upper and lower limbs.

37

What makes the pectoral girdle?

Scapulae and clavicles

38

What makes the pelvic girdle?

Hip bones and sacrum

39

What three types of joint are there?

Fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial

40

What are two examples of fibrous joints?

Syndesmoses and sutures.

41

What are two types of cartilaginous joint with examples?

Primary - hyaline joints between bones e.g. Epiphyseal growth plate.
Secondary - fibrocartilage between joints e.g. Intervertebral discs and pubic symphysis.

42

What are the two parts of intervertebral discs?

Annulus fibrosis on the outside and nucleus pulposus on the inside.

43

What are the 8 typical features of a synovial joint?

1. 2 or more bones articulating
2. Joints covered in hyaline cartilage
3. A capsule surrounding the joint
4. A joint cavity.
5. Supported by ligaments.
6. Associated with skeletal muscles and their tendons.
7. Associated with bursa
8. May have special features.

44

What are the two different classifications of synovial joint and why?

Simple - 1 pair of articular surfaces.
Compound - more than one pair of articular surfaces.

45

What are the five types of synovial joints?

Pivot, plane, ball and socket, hinge and biaxial.

46

What is an example of a pivot joint?

Atlanto-axial joint.

47

What is an example of a plane joint and what range of movement does it have?

Acromioclavicular joint - minimal range of movement in one plane.

48

What is an example of a hinge joint and what range of movement does it have?

Elbow - large range of movement in one plane.

49

What is an example of a biaxial joint and what range of movement does it have?

Wrist joint - large in one plane and minimal in another plane.

50

What features of a pivot joint allow its range of movement?

A bony process fitting into a bony ligamentous socket allowing rotation.

51

What features of a ball and socket joint allow its range of movement?

A round head fits into a concavity allowing circular movement.

52

What features of a plane joint allow its range of movement?

Two flattened ends in apposition to each other.

53

What features of a hinge joint allow its range of movement?

A concave surface fitting into a concave notch allowing movement in one direction.

54

What two types of biaxial joint are there?
What features allow their range of movement?

Saddle - two saddle shapes (like Pringles) fitting into each other allowing movement on two planes.
Condyloid - ovoid condyle fitting into an elliptical cavity allowing movement in two planes.

55

What does subluxation mean?

Decreased area of contact between articular surfaces.

56

What does dislocation mean?

Complete loss of contact between 2 articular surfaces.

57

What features of bones make up the TMJ?

The head of the condylar process of the mandible articulates with the temporal bone.
The articular tubercle is anterior to the condylar head and the mandibular fossa is superior to the condylar head.

58

What are the three special features of the TMJ?

The superior and inferior articular cavity and the articulating disc in between.

59

Where does the head of the condylar process of the mandible lie in a jaw dislocation?

Anterior to the articulating tubercle of the temporal bone.

60

What suggests a bilateral dislocation of the TMJs?

The chin remaining in the midline.

61

Where are the two primary curvatures of the spine?

The thoracic and the sacrum/coccyx

62

What are the structures of a skeletal muscle going from largest to smallest?

Muscle to fascicle to muscle fibre to myofibril which is comprised of several sarcomeres end to end.

63

What is a sarcolemma?

Cell membrane of a muscle cell.

64

Describe cartilage in relation to:
Rigidity
Permeability
Vascularity
Sources of nourishment

Semi rigid and deformable
Permeable
Avascular
Nutrients from ECM

65

What are the features of nuclei of muscle fibres?

Each fibre has many nuclei which are at the periphery of the fibre just under the sarcolemma.

66

What connective tissue surrounds a muscle?

Epimysium

67

What connective tissue surrounds a single muscle fascicle?

Perimysium

68

What connective tissue surrounds a single muscle fibre?

Endomysium

69

Why are skeletal muscles striated?

Because the dark and light actin and myosin bands are held in registry with each other although nothing is physically running across the fibre.

70

Does a single motor unit supply the same types of muscle fibre or different types?

The same types.

71

What are the features of type 1 muscle fibres?
Look at: colour, type of ATP generation, fatigue and organelles.

Depend on oxidative phosphorylation
Have abundant mitochondria
Red fibres due to abundant myoglobin
Resistant to fatigue due to ability to regenerate ATP quickly.

72

How common are type 2a muscle fibres and what do they do?

Intermediate between 2b and 1. Relatively fast contracting and resistant to fatigue. Not very common.

73

What are the features of type 2 muscle fibres?
Look at: colour, type of ATP generation, fatigue and organelles.

Fast acting, easily fatigued. Rely on anaerobic metabolism. Few mitochondria. Called white fibres.

74

What are five different types of skeletal muscle?

Pennate (multi, bi, uni etc.)
Circular
Fusiform
Quadrate
Flat

75

What are the two main reflexes of skeletal muscle?

Flexion withdrawal and stretch

76

What do the descending controls of the brain do during a reflex?

Prevent overly brisk movements.

77

Where are skeletal muscles located in relation to the skin?

Under the deep fascia.