Anatomy: Gluteal and Posterior Thigh Flashcards Preview

Skin MS: Week 4 > Anatomy: Gluteal and Posterior Thigh > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy: Gluteal and Posterior Thigh Deck (41):
1

Hip Bone major parts

Ilium (top)
Ischium (back)
Pubis

Acetabulum - socket for femoral head

2

Extends from sacrum/coccyx to ischial tuberosity

sacrotuberous ligament

3

extends from sacrum/coccyx to ischial spine

sacrospinous ligament

4

Two ligaments convert greater and lesser sciatic notches into greater and lesser sciatic foramina
Other purpose?

Sacrotuberous and Sacrospinous ligaments

- also prevent outward thrust of sacrum

5

Greater sciatic foramen

passageway for structures entering or leaving pelvis

6

Lesser sciatic foramen

passageway for structures entering or leaving the perineum

7

Gluteus Maximus

N: Inferior Gluteal Nerve
Forcefully extends and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint, extends leg at knee joint through IT band

8

Superficial Gluteal Muscles

Gluteus Maximus, Medius, Minimus
Tensor Fasciae Latae

9

Gluteus Medius and Minimus

N: Superior Gluteal Nerve
Abduct thigh at hip joint and steady pelvis, medial rotators

10

Tensor Fasciae Latae

N: Superior Gluteal Nerve
Action: Assists gluteus maximus in extending knee joint
Embedded in tensor fascia - inserts into IT band

11

Lateral Rotators of thigh at hip joint

Piriformis
Obturator internus
Gemellus Superior and Inferior
Quadratus femoris

12

Intragluteal injections

Upper outer quadrant - avoid sciatic nerve and gluteal nerves

13

The inferior gluteal artery is a branch of the __________

The inferior gluteal artery is a branch of the internal iliac artery in the pelvis.

14

Gluteal gait or lurch

Paralysis of G. Maximus due to damage/lesion to inferior gluteal nerve (L5-S2)

Limited hip extension on affected side during mid-stance, compensated for by
hyperextension of trunk.

15

The deep fascia of the thigh, the ______, is a tough fascia which forms a sleeve around the muscles of the thigh. Laterally, it splits to enclose the belly of the muscle, __________. This muscle pulls on the thickened portion of the fascia lata overlying the vastus lateralis called the ________

The deep fascia of the thigh, the fascia lata, is a tough fascia which forms a sleeve around the muscles of the thigh. Laterally, it splits to enclose the belly of the muscle, tensor fasciae latae. This muscle pulls on the thickened portion of the fascia lata overlying the vastus lateralis called the ILIOTIBIAL TRACT (IT Band)

16

Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is the result of ________ This is an overuse injury with symptoms that include inflammation and irritation of the iliotibial band. The pain is typically felt on the ___________ , and is often more intense when descending stairs, or getting up from a seated position.

Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is the result of irritation of the distal portion of the iliotibial tendon as it rubs against the lateral femoral condyle, or less commonly, proximally, the greater trochanter. This is an overuse injury with symptoms that include inflammation and irritation of the iliotibial band. The pain is typically felt on the lateral aspect of the knee or lower thigh, and is often more intense when descending stairs, or getting up from a seated position.

17

Weaver's Bottom (Ischial bursitis)

cycling, rowing and other activities that require repetitive hip extension while seated may overwhelm the bursa’s ability to dissipate applied stress.

18

Trochanteric bursitis

deep gluteal pain felt over the trochanteric bursa, usually due to repetitive action like climbing stairs or running on a steeply elevated treadmill or hills. The gluteus maximus rubs over the greater trochanter causing this friction bursitis.

19

Superior gluteal nerve innervates _________ (3)
The superior gluteal artery is a branch of the ____________
This neurovascular bundle runs between the ________

Superior gluteal nerve innervates G. medius and G. minimus and Tensor Fasciae Latae
The superior gluteal artery is a branch of the internal iIliac artery in the pelvis.
This neurovascular bundle runs between the medius and minimus.

20

Gluteus gait or limp (Trendelenburg's sign)

is due to paralyzed gluteus medius and minimus muscles as a result of injury to the superior gluteal nerve; the normal steadying effect of these muscles is lost so when the foot is raised on the normal side, the pelvis falls on that side. A congenital dislocation of the hip or nonunion of a fracture of the femoral neck can also produce this limp. The supporting mechanism fails and the pelvis sinks when an attempt is made to stand on the affected limb

21

A lateral rotator, originates on the pelvic surface of the sacrum, the sacrotuberous ligament and the ilium below the PIIS. It leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen and inserts on the upper border of the greater trochanter.

piriformis muscle

22

Sciatica

a neuritis (inflammation of the nerve) of the sciatic nerve characterized by intense pain at the back of the leg and/or thigh; can also be caused by pressure on a root of the nerve, e.g., from a herniated disc

23

Piriformis syndrome

individuals involved in sports (ice skaters, cyclists, rock climbers) and women are more likely to develop this syndrome. In 50% of cases, trauma in the buttock is associated with hypertrophy and spasm of the piriformis which compresses the sciatic nerve.

24

Pudendal nerve

The pudendal nerve (S2,3,4) innervates the structures in the perineum. It is the most medial structure crossing the sacrospinous ligament, possibly under cover of the sacrotuberous ligament.

25

Posterior dislocation of hip can injure ___

sciatic nerve

26

Anterior compartment thigh

Hip flexors
Knee extensors

Femoral nerve

27

Medial compartment thigh

Thigh adductors, medial rotators
Obturator nerve

28

Posterior compartment thigh

Hip extensors, knee flexors
Tibial and fibular nerves

29

Posterior thigh muscles

Hamstrings -->
biceps femoris
semitendinosus
semimembranosis

30

biceps femoris

Long head - tibial portion of sciatic nerve
Short head - common fibular portion of sciatic nerve

31

Semitendonosus

tibial portion of sciatic nerve

32

Semimembranosus

tibial portion of sciatic nerve

33

Hamstring injuries

are common in individuals who run and kick hard (baseball, basketball, football and soccer). Parts of the proximal attachment to the ischial tuberosity may tear (avulsion). Hamstring injuries are twice as common as quadriceps strains.

34

Charley horse

contusion and tearing of muscle fibers enough to result in a thigh hematoma (collection of blood); pain and stiffness

35

Blood supply to posterior thigh

perforating branches of deep femoral artery

36

Sciatic nerve

L4,5
S1,2,3
Largest nerve in body, no branches in gluteal region

37

Pudendal nerve

S2,3,4
Supplies structures in perineum

38

Posterior Femoral cutaneous Nerve

S1,2,3
Cutaneous to skin of lower buttock and skin of posterior compartment of thigh

39

Superior Gluteal nerve

L4,5 S1
To gluteus medius, minimus and Tensor Fasciae latae

40

Inferior Gluteal nerve

L5, S1,2
To gluteus Maximus

41

Other muscular nerve branches

To quadratus femoris, obturator internus and piriformis