Flashcards in Anatomy of Adaptive Immuno Deck (60):
What is the function of adaptive immunity?
To generate highly specific T cell and b cell responses against microbes that defeat the innate system
What composes the adaptive immune system?
lymphocyte subset, primary lymphoid organs, secondary lymphoid organs and lymphatic duct system
What are T lymphcytes and B lymphocytes derived from?
hematopoietic stem cells
Where do hematopoietic stem cells reside?
Bone marrow, quiescent state and cycle infrequently to maintain resevoir
What all do hematopoietic stem cells give rise to?
erythrocytes and megakaryocytic
What is derived from the myeloid progenitor cell?
All the innate cells
What type of cell is between myeloid progenitor cells and neutrophils/monocytes/mactophages?
Is natural killer innate or adaptive?
innate but derived from the lymphoid progenitor
dendritic cells can also be derived from the lymphoid progenitor
What type of cell? simple, uncomplicated nucleus, small cytoplasm, modest membrane ruffling?
lymphocytes- slightly larger than erythrocytes
by morphology can you distinguish B vs. T resting?
no. distinguished by differential expression of surface proteins
How are t cell vs b cell differentiated? methods?
diff proteins on cell surface---stained with monoclonal antibodies---conjugated with fluorochromes---flow cytometetry (detect and count stained subsets)
What are the primary lymphoid organs?
thymus and bone marrow
All immune cells mature in bone marrow except?
T cells- reflection of the manner in which their receptors recognize antigen and the need for self reactive T-cells to be purged
What are the secondary lymphoid organs?
-encapsulated organs that serve as repositories
-antigens are concentrated and response initiated
mucosa associated lymphoid tissues
(peripheral lympoid system do include the ducts but are not considered organs)
T-F…Many antigens never encounter an antigen and are not activated?
Is the thymus more prominent in adults or children?
children----atrophies and in adulthood is filled with adipose with ongoing T-cell production at low levels (Tcell compartments are full an only need minor replenishment)
There is a rare primary genetic disease where thymus is incomplete or absent?
What is central tolerance?
avoidance of autoimmunity
At what stage does the direction to become CD4+ or CD8+ take place?
double positive stage
Pre-T-Cells have what definitive surface proteins?
They do not become positive until double positive stage
What is it called when the stain used on paraffin encoded slices is antibodies?
H&E is what….common?
--hematoxylin (blue) + charge stains -cortex dense nuclei
--and eosin (pink) medulla (CT) - charge stains +
Where are most primitive T-cells found in the thymus?
upper cortex---as they mature they course to the medulla
What do TCRs do in the thymus?
detect self antigens---if they bind to something with moderate to high affinity (MHC/Protein complex) then they are self deleted (MOST ARE DELETED) progressive loss as they transverse the thymus
what bones have bone marrow with active hematopoietic islands organized around vascular sinuses?
long bones, pelvis, ribs, sternum, vertebrae and skull
What cells lie closest to sinuses in bone marrow? more distal one?
megakaryocytes and erythrocytes
myeloid and lymphocytes more distal
What B cell receptor demarcates the stage where purging occurs and is used in the purging self recognizing pathway?
Disease from mutation in key molecules for B cell maturation--key tyrosine kinase is mutated and leads to premature termination of maturation?
What organs have little or no lymph?
brain, eye, testes, fetus (immune privileged)
openings of small lymph vessels allow things in but do they allow anything back out?
What are the 2 key functions of lymphatic duct system?
return fluids forced out of capillaries back to blood
pass fluids through lymph nodes for sampling
what is often seen in cancer patients that have had a region lymph node removed?
( other causes include trauma, infection, malignancy, radiation, parasitic worm elephantiasis)
where is afferent fluid emptied into?
sub capsular space then percolate through cortical regions
What is the order of lymph flow?
subcaplar space---cortex (Tcells and Bcells here)---medulla--medullary cords--medullary sinus---efferent vessel
What cell type resides in oval shaped follicles
what cells reside in practical areas around and underneath follicles?
what is an area of intense b cell activation?
2 key function of spleen?
filter the blood and concentrate foreign material for immune system and monitor blood to remove damaged senescent cells
What type of pulp has cords or strands, lined with macrophages and collect into venues?
Red pulp= filtering
What type of pulp has t cells, b cells and marginal zone (between the two)?
White pulp= immunity Pals
Are there afferent lymphatics to the spleen?
where are MALT found?
airway, gut, genitourinary and mammary tissue
Where is waldeyer's ring?
upper airway-adenoids and tonsils
Where is iBALT?
lower airway, inducible bronchiole associated tissue
Where are peer's patches?
MALTS sample antigens through what type of cell other than afferents?
M cells---they do not have efferents either?
What layer are peters patches found?
What is a key target for many vaccines?
mucosal associated lymphoid tissue
--antibodies for polio is in GI tract
Are T cells and B cells segregated in spleen white pulp?
yes---rather strictly t cell central b cell peripheral
What drives organization of secondary lymphoids?
chemokine and receptor for b cells?
CXCL13 (follicular dendritic cells release) and CXCR5
chemokine and receptor for t cells?
CXCL19 and CCL21 (reticular cells release), and CCR&
chemokine receptors are part of what family?
g protein coupled
are dendritic follicle cells related to dendritic cells?
how do blood borne lymphocytes exit into secondary lymphoid tissues?
high endothelial venues, receptor mediated…triggers transmigration
4 key steps in transmigration process?
rolling, activation, firm adhesion, and transmigration
---must need selections, integrins, chemokine receptors
cd62L (L-selectin) and peripheral node address (PNad)
What does aLbeta2 or LFA-1 bind?
What does a4beta1 or VLA-4 bind