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Flashcards in Anatomy of Adaptive Immuno Deck (60):
1

What is the function of adaptive immunity?

To generate highly specific T cell and b cell responses against microbes that defeat the innate system

2

What composes the adaptive immune system?

lymphocyte subset, primary lymphoid organs, secondary lymphoid organs and lymphatic duct system

3

What are T lymphcytes and B lymphocytes derived from?

hematopoietic stem cells

4

Where do hematopoietic stem cells reside?

Bone marrow, quiescent state and cycle infrequently to maintain resevoir

5

What all do hematopoietic stem cells give rise to?

lymphocytes
erythrocytes and megakaryocytic
granulocytes
monocyte/macrophage
dendritic cells

6

What is derived from the myeloid progenitor cell?

All the innate cells

7

What type of cell is between myeloid progenitor cells and neutrophils/monocytes/mactophages?

granulocyte-monocyte progenitor

8

Is natural killer innate or adaptive?

innate but derived from the lymphoid progenitor
dendritic cells can also be derived from the lymphoid progenitor

9

What type of cell? simple, uncomplicated nucleus, small cytoplasm, modest membrane ruffling?

lymphocytes- slightly larger than erythrocytes

10

by morphology can you distinguish B vs. T resting?

no. distinguished by differential expression of surface proteins

11

How are t cell vs b cell differentiated? methods?

diff proteins on cell surface---stained with monoclonal antibodies---conjugated with fluorochromes---flow cytometetry (detect and count stained subsets)

12

What are the primary lymphoid organs?

thymus and bone marrow

13

All immune cells mature in bone marrow except?

T cells- reflection of the manner in which their receptors recognize antigen and the need for self reactive T-cells to be purged

14

What are the secondary lymphoid organs?

-encapsulated organs that serve as repositories
-antigens are concentrated and response initiated
lymph nodes
spleen
mucosa associated lymphoid tissues
(peripheral lympoid system do include the ducts but are not considered organs)

15

T-F…Many antigens never encounter an antigen and are not activated?

True

16

Is the thymus more prominent in adults or children?

children----atrophies and in adulthood is filled with adipose with ongoing T-cell production at low levels (Tcell compartments are full an only need minor replenishment)

17

There is a rare primary genetic disease where thymus is incomplete or absent?

Di Georges

18

What is central tolerance?

avoidance of autoimmunity

19

At what stage does the direction to become CD4+ or CD8+ take place?

double positive stage

20

Pre-T-Cells have what definitive surface proteins?

Trick question
CD4 -
CD8 -
TCR -
They do not become positive until double positive stage

21

What is it called when the stain used on paraffin encoded slices is antibodies?

immunohistochemistry

22

H&E is what….common?

--hematoxylin (blue) + charge stains -cortex dense nuclei
--and eosin (pink) medulla (CT) - charge stains +
most common

23

Where are most primitive T-cells found in the thymus?

upper cortex---as they mature they course to the medulla

24

What do TCRs do in the thymus?

detect self antigens---if they bind to something with moderate to high affinity (MHC/Protein complex) then they are self deleted (MOST ARE DELETED) progressive loss as they transverse the thymus

25

what bones have bone marrow with active hematopoietic islands organized around vascular sinuses?

long bones, pelvis, ribs, sternum, vertebrae and skull

26

What cells lie closest to sinuses in bone marrow? more distal one?

megakaryocytes and erythrocytes
myeloid and lymphocytes more distal

27

What B cell receptor demarcates the stage where purging occurs and is used in the purging self recognizing pathway?

surface IgM

28

Disease from mutation in key molecules for B cell maturation--key tyrosine kinase is mutated and leads to premature termination of maturation?

brutons agammaglobulinemia

29

What organs have little or no lymph?

brain, eye, testes, fetus (immune privileged)

30

openings of small lymph vessels allow things in but do they allow anything back out?

no

31

What are the 2 key functions of lymphatic duct system?

return fluids forced out of capillaries back to blood
pass fluids through lymph nodes for sampling

32

what is often seen in cancer patients that have had a region lymph node removed?

lymphedema
( other causes include trauma, infection, malignancy, radiation, parasitic worm elephantiasis)

33

where is afferent fluid emptied into?

sub capsular space then percolate through cortical regions

34

What is the order of lymph flow?

subcaplar space---cortex (Tcells and Bcells here)---medulla--medullary cords--medullary sinus---efferent vessel

35

What cell type resides in oval shaped follicles

b cells

36

what cells reside in practical areas around and underneath follicles?

t-cells

37

what is an area of intense b cell activation?

germinal center

38

2 key function of spleen?

filter the blood and concentrate foreign material for immune system and monitor blood to remove damaged senescent cells

39

What type of pulp has cords or strands, lined with macrophages and collect into venues?

Red pulp= filtering

40

What type of pulp has t cells, b cells and marginal zone (between the two)?

White pulp= immunity Pals

41

Are there afferent lymphatics to the spleen?

No

42

where are MALT found?

airway, gut, genitourinary and mammary tissue

43

Where is waldeyer's ring?

upper airway-adenoids and tonsils

44

Where is iBALT?

lower airway, inducible bronchiole associated tissue

45

Where are peer's patches?

small intestine

46

MALTS sample antigens through what type of cell other than afferents?

M cells---they do not have efferents either?

47

What layer are peters patches found?

submucosa

48

What is a key target for many vaccines?

mucosal associated lymphoid tissue
--antibodies for polio is in GI tract

49

Are T cells and B cells segregated in spleen white pulp?

yes---rather strictly t cell central b cell peripheral

50

What drives organization of secondary lymphoids?

chemokines

51

chemokine and receptor for b cells?

CXCL13 (follicular dendritic cells release) and CXCR5

52

chemokine and receptor for t cells?

CXCL19 and CCL21 (reticular cells release), and CCR&

53

chemokine receptors are part of what family?

g protein coupled

54

are dendritic follicle cells related to dendritic cells?

no

55

how do blood borne lymphocytes exit into secondary lymphoid tissues?

high endothelial venues, receptor mediated…triggers transmigration

56

4 key steps in transmigration process?

rolling, activation, firm adhesion, and transmigration
---must need selections, integrins, chemokine receptors

57

key selection?

cd62L (L-selectin) and peripheral node address (PNad)

58

What does aLbeta2 or LFA-1 bind?

ICAM-1

59

What does a4beta1 or VLA-4 bind

VCAM-1

60

What does a4beta7 or LPAM bind?

MadCAM-1