Anatomy of the Periodontium Flashcards Preview

AU 15- Periodontology > Anatomy of the Periodontium > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy of the Periodontium Deck (68):
1

What four parts make up the periodontium?

1. Gingiva
2. Periodontal Ligament
3. Root Cementum
4. Alveolar Bone (ABP)

2

Cementum is connected to PDL through _________.

Sharpey's Fibers

3

The alveolar bone proper has two plates: the inner plate is on the ____side, the outer plate is on the ____ side.

inner: PDL-side
outer: gingival-side

4

What are the two main functions of the PDL?

1. attach the tooth to bony tissue of the jaw
2. Maintain integrity of masticatory mucosa

5

When does the periodontium begin development and from where do cells originate?

Early in embryonic phase
neural crest (neural tube)

6

Neural crest cells will migrate into the _____ branchial arch and form _______ beneath the stomadeal epithelium.

first
ectomesenchyme

7

What are the three forms of the dental lamina?

Bud, Cap, Bell

8

Ectomesenchyme condenses around the dental organ to form the dental papilla which will give rise to _____ and _____.

Dentin and Pulp (dental papilla!)

9

What does the dental follicle give rise to?

Periodontium (dental follicle!)

10

Dental Papilla determines the _____ of the tooth; whereas, dental follicle determines the _______.

shape
periodontium/root

11

The outer and inner enamel epithelium proliferate apically and form ______.

Hertwig's Epithelial Root Sheath

12

Which forms first, cementum or dentin?

Dentin is first

13

When does cementum production begin?

The root sheath breaks down and forms fenestrations, ectomesenchymal cells of the follicle contact the root surface and induces the differentiation of these cells into cementoblasts.

14

Inner cells of the root sheath secrete enamel-related proteins known as _______.

Amelogenins

15

________ induces differentiation of ectomesenchymal cells into cementoblasts.

Amelogenin

16

Periodontal ligament is formed by ________ that are differentiated from dental follicle _____ to the cementum.

Fibroblasts
lateral

17

_______ differentiate from dental follicle ectomesenchymal cells (ABP).

Osteoblasts

18

How long after eruption does the root complete its formation?

3 years

19

True or False: Ectomesenchymal cells remain in mature periodontium.

True; ectomesenchymal cells participate in turnover

20

Definition: Part of the masticatory mucosa which covers the alveolar process and surrounds the cervical portion of the teeth.

Gingiva

21

What are the three parts of gingiva?

Free Gingiva
Attached Gingiva
Interdental Papilla

22

True or False: The free gingival groove can always be found in a patient where the free and attached gingiva meet.

False: although that is the location, it is not always visible in the mouth

23

Maxillary and mandibular differences in gingival appearance include stippling in ________ and thinness in _______.

maxillary
mandibular

24

Describe the boundaries of free gingiva.

Free gingiva is between the free gingival margin and free gingival groove (FGM-->FGG)

25

Free gingiva is made up of ________epithelium.

keratinized

26

________ is the coronal end of gingiva and is located 1.5-2.0 mm coronal to the CEJ.

Free gingival margin

27

The _____ corresponds to the CEJ in health, whereas the _____ is coronal to the CEJ in health.

Free Gingival Groove at the CEJ
Free Gingival Margin coronal to CEJ

28

Gingival epithelium is made of what three subcategories?

Oral Epithelium
Sulcular Epithelium
Junctional Epithelium

29

_____ epithelium faces the oral cavity; _______ epithelium faces the tooth surface (without contacting it).

Oral
Sulcular

30

______ epithelium provides contact between gingiva and the tooth (marks transition between free and attached)

Junctional

31

During a gingivectomy, which part of the gingiva is removed? Can it regenerate?

Oral Sulcular (OSE)
yes

32

On a microscopic level, free gingiva spans from ____ to _____.

Free Gingival Margin to Junctional Epithelium

33

Name three characteristics of attached gingiva.

1. Firm texture
2. Coral Pink
3. Immobile

34

True or False: the width of attached gingiva increases with age.

True (passive eruption)

35

Lingually, the attached gingiva of the mandible is narrowest in the ______ region and widest in the _____ region.

Incisor
Molar

36

Bucally, the attached gingiva is narrowest in the _____ region and widest in the _____ region.

premolar
incisors

37

Definition: the junction between attached gingiva and alveolar mucosa.

Mucogingival Junction (MGJ)

38

True or False: There is no mucogingival junction in the palate.

True

39

Why is there no mucogingival junction in the hard palate?

MGJ marks a change between keratinized to unkeratinized epithelium. The hard palate is ALL keratinized

40

What are four functions of the attached gingiva?

1. Withstand friction
2. Provide thick connective tissue
3. Support MG
4. Prevent inflammation via width and thickness

41

True or False: 60% of adults have stippling of maxillary gingiva.

False: only 40% (regardless of health)

42

Another name for marginal gingiva is ______.

sulcus

43

Keratinized gingiva minus marginal gingiva =

attached gingiva

44

The contact relationships between adjacent teeth, the width of proximal tooth surfaces, and the course of the CEJ will determine the shape of the _______.

interdental papilla (IP)

45

True or False: Interdental papilla only exist if teeth are present on both sides.

True

46

The concavity seen in contact areas of premolar and molar regions is know as _____.

Col

47

The col/interdental papilla is ______ epithelium.

nonkeratinized

48

At what age will the bottom of the gingival sulcus of a healthy mouth be found apical to the CEJ?

age 40-60

49

Molars have ______ interdental papilla than premolars.

wider

50

Which teeth are at highest risk for periodontal diseases?

Molars, because they have the largest interdental papilla (nonkeratinized)

51

What are three qualities of oral epithelium?

1. keratinized
2. stratified
3. squamous

52

Squamous epithelium of the oral cavity are also called ________.

keratinocytes

53

What are the four layers of oral epithelium from inside (connective tissue side) to outside?

Basal Layer
Prickle Cell Layer (spinosum)
Granular Cell Layer (granulosum)
Keratinized Cell Layer (corneum)

54

The keratinized cell layer may be either orthokeratinized or parakertinized; what is the difference?

ortho- no nucleus
para- nuclear remnants

55

From the basal layer (innermost) to the granular cell layer, the number of desmosomes _____.

increases

56

From the basal layer (innermost) to the granular cell layer, the number of organelles _____.

decreases

57

From the basal layer (innermost) to the granular cell layer, the number of cytoplasmic tonofilaments _______.

increases

58

90% of the cells of the oral epithelium are _____.

keratinocytes

59

What type of cells synthesize pigment?

melanocytes

60

What type of defense cells are most numerous in the oral epithelium?

Langerhans

61

What type of sensory cells are prevelent in the oral epithelium?

Merkel's Cells

62

Where is the basement membrane?

between the basal layer of the oral epithelium and the underlying connective tissue

63

The basement membrane of oral epithelium is ____ thick, rich in _____, and contains _______ complexes.

1-2 micrometers thick
rich in glycoproteins
contains protein-polysaccharide complexes

64

What are the two layers of the basement membrane?

Lamina Lucida (next to basal layer)
Lamina Densa (next to CT)

65

How is epithelium connected to the basement membrane?

Hemidesmosomes (two cells connect hemidesmosomes to form a desmosome)

66

Which biotype of epithelium will show greater signs of stippling?

Thick

67

Stippling is caused by the fusion of _______.

rete pegs (epithelial ridges)

68

Rete pegs intertwine with _________.

Connective tissue papillae