Flashcards in Anatomy of the Respiratory Tract Deck (26)
Which ribs are 'true'?
Which ribs are 'false'
Which ribs are 'floating'?
11 and 12
What is the jugular notch?
The very top of the manubrium
What is the manubrium?
The first portion of the sternum (tie knot aspect)
What is the Angle of Louis?
The site of connection between the manubrium and the body of the sternum
What is the Xiphoid process?
The post inferior portion of the sternum
What is the outermost muscle in the intercostal space?
External intercostal muscle (into front pockets)
Which intercostal muscle houses the neurovascular bundle?
Internal intercostal muscle (aims into the back pockets)
How are the scalene muscles of the neck involved in inspiration?
Responsible for manipulating the front-to-back diameter of the thorax in deep inspiration
What structures are used to facilitate quiet inspiration?
Uses the diaphragm, external intercostals and the interchondral part of the internal intercostals
What structures are used to facilitate deep inspiration?
Accessory muscles of breathing are also used, which includes the scalene muscle, the sternocleidomastoids and the pectoralis minor.
What structures are used to facilitate quiet expiration?
None, it's passive, involves the recoil of the respiratory (inspiratory) muscles
What structures are used to facilitate deep expiration?
Interosseous part of the internal intercostal muscle will contract, along with the abdominal muscles (accessory muscles)
Why may someone bend over and put their hands on their knees if they are struggling to breathe?
Allows the accessory muscles to have a greater control of breathing and therefore can increase the oxygen uptake
What is the parasympathetic supply to the lungs (viscera)?
Vagus nerve is parasympathetic supply to the lungs; plexus of nerves flows along the pulmonary tree, and has motor neurons which act as bronchoconstrictors, as well as secretomotors which go to glands.
What is the sympathetic supply to the lungs (viscera)?
Sympathetic trunk supplies the lungs; paravertebral sympathetic ganglia have an effect as bronchodilators and inhibiting alveolar glands.
When would an individual first experience pain in a lung disease?
When the diseases crosses the parietal pleura as there is where somatic innervation is present and therefore it would be referred to dermatomes supplied by the same spinal nerve. Presentation only occurs here because there is only autonomic innervation to the lungs themselves.
Where does the oblique fissure of the lungs start?
In the midclavicular line of the 6th rib
Where does the horizontal fissure of the right lung start?
Just under the 4th rib posteriorly and this is where the shoulder blades are
What is the vast majority of the posterior of the lungs?
The inferior lobe
What is present in the lung hilum?
Pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, primary bronchi, lymph nodes (to allow drainage from the lungs)
How does the passage of the vagus and phrenic nerve relative the lungs differ?
The vagus nerve travels posteriorly to the lung whereas the phrenic nerve travels anterior to the lung
Trace the flow of air from the nose to the alveoli
There is the trachea, which then branches off into the bronchi (intermediate bronchus), and then into the superior, inferior and middle lobar bronchi on the right side (the more vertical side, mainly affected in choking), and into the superior and inferior lobar bronchus on the left side.
What is a bronchopulmonary segment?
It is simple a subdivision of a lung lobe which is surrounded by connective tissue. They have their own segmental/tertiary bronchus and are supplied by arteries, lymph vessels and autonomic nerves. Therefore, one of these segments can be removed in isolation rather than an entire lung.