Flashcards in *Anatomy - Renal Deck (56):
7 essential functions of the kidneys?
Blood pH control
Blood pressure control
Metabolism of waste products and drugs
Stimulates RBC production (due to hormone produced by kidney)
Required for absorption of calcium from the GI tract
What are the 4 parts of the urinary tract?
What epithelium are the tubes from the ureter to upper urethra lined with? Other name?
Transitional epithelium (also known as urothelium)
What epithelium covers the distal urethra?
Protective stratified squamous mucosa
What are the parts of the upper urinary tract?
Lower urinary tract?
What 3 bodies regions is the urinary tract located in?
What ribs protect the kidneys?
11 and 12
What type of fat protects the kidneys? (2)
What kidney lies higher?
Liver pushes down right kidney
What is the tough fibrous layer surrounding the kidney called?
The renal capsule
Why does the kidneys move with respiration?
The liver and spleen lie in contact with diaphragm superiorly and the superior poles of the kidneys inferiorly
What vertebrae levels does the right and left kidneys lie alongside?
Right = L1-L3
Left = T12 - L2
What are the 3 structures present in the renal hilum?
Right renal artery
Right renal vein
What is more deep, the paranephric fat or perinephric fat?
Perinephric fat (separated from the paranephric fat by the renal (deep) fascia
What provides arterial blood supply to the kidneys?
Renal arteries (branch bilaterally from the aorta)
What provides arterial blood to the ureters?
Multiples arterial branches from the renal arteries, gonadal arteries and aorta
What is the venous drainage from the kidneys?
Right and left renal vein which drain to the IVC
Where does the left gonadal vein drain?
Where does the right gonadal vein drain?
Left trains into the left renal vein
Right drains into the IVC directly
How many segments does each kidney have?
What provides a blood supply to each of the 5 segments of the kidney?
The 5 segmental branches which arise from each renal artery
What is the basic structural and functional units of the kidney?
What are the 2 main anatomical parts of the kidney?
How many pyramids does the human medulla contain?
27 (each pyramid contains around 50,000 nephrons)
How are the nephrons arranged in the pyramids?
Regularly arranged, running axially towards the apex of each pyramid = striped appearance of pyramids
What is the first part of the nephron called?
What does this do?
Ultrafiltration of the blood arriving via the branches of the renal artery
What is the next part of the nephron after the glomerulus?
Proximal convoluted tubules
What is the next part of the nephron after the proximal convoluted tubule?
Loose of henle
What is the next part of the nephron after the loop of henle?
Distal convoluted tubule
Where does the filtrate drain after the distal convoluted tubule?
The collecting duct
What is the purpose of the collecting duct?
Passes through the pyramid to drain the modified filtrate into the minor calyx as urine?
When is the filtrate from the nephron known as urine?
Once it passes into the minor calyx
Where does the urine drain to between the nephrons and the ureter?
collecting duct -> minor calyx -> major calyx -> renal pelvis -> ureter
The diameter of the urine drainage tubes increases, when is there a constriction?
At the pelvicureteric junction (the wider renal pelvis becomes the narrower ureter)
What are the 3 anatomical sites of ureteric constriction?
As the ureter crosses the anterior aspect of the common iliac artery
At the ureteric orifice (opening into posterior surface of the bladder)
What can renal calculi (stones) form from?
Urine calcium salts (can obstruct the urinary tract from within - usually visible on x-rays)
What does the urinary tract do when there is a ureteric obstruction?
As the ureter has smooth muscle in its walls, the urinary tract's response is therefore the same as the GI tracts - it increases peristalsis proximal tot he site of the obstruction in an attempt to flush it into the bladder (obstruction can either be internal or external)
What is the scientific name for peeing?
Where is the trigone located?
On the floor of the bladder between the bilateral ureteric and midline urethral orifices
What type of epithelium lines the bladder?
What happens as the bladder fills?
The apex rises and the trigone does not stretch or move (helps to prevent the obstruction of the orifices)
What muscle is located within the walls of the bladder?
Contracts ti void during micturition
What bladder sphincter is present in females?
Detrusor muscle fibres (encircle the ureteric orifices to prevent reflux of urine into the ureters during micturition
what bladder sphincters are present in males?
Detrusor muscle fibres encircle the ureteric orifices (like in females)
Detrusor muscle fibres also encircle the bladder neck (this internal urethral sphincter prevents ejaculatory reflux - located within the bladder neck from detrusor muscle fibres circling it - only present in males
What is the part of the urethra that passes through the penis called?
The spongy urethra
Where is the external urethral sphincter present in males?
Inferior to the prostate gland
Skeletal muscle circularly arranged around the urethra
What conditions of the prostate can lead to urinary retention?
Benign or malignant enlargement of the prostate gland
By obstructing the prostatic urethra
Where can the apex of a full bladder reach?
The umbilical level
What are the 2 types of catheters that can be used to urinary retention?
Where is a suprapubic catheter inserted?
Into the bladder via the anterior abdominal wall
Where is a urinary catheter inserted?
Into the bladder via the urethra (inflated balloon "cuff" holds it int the bladder)
what is the name of the urethral sphincter present in females?
Made up of?
External urethral sphincter
Skeletal muscle circularly arranged around urethra
Are males or females more likely to get UTIs?
Females(much easier to catheterise than males however)
What does an obstruction within the urinary tract cause?
Urine to "back up" in the tract toward the kidneys
If there is an obstruction within the urinary tract, when will urine produce stop?
When the pressure within he urinary tract exceeds the pressure favouring filtration at the glomerulus