anthropological participant observation
Living amongst the people to gain knowledge of their lives
studying of the remains - pottery, bones, buildings, tools, and artwork – of a culture to determine
Sources of knowledge about early humans includes:
Fossils from burial pits; occasional bones found in rock deposits; archaeological excavations of tools, potter, well paintings;
study of living primitives
written records go back…
4,500 years ago
25,000 years ago
Primitive humans lived in
small communities, relied on hunting, painted magical animals in caves to beckon real ones, fertility paintings as well
Old Stone Age also called the Paleolithic Age occurred one million years ago and presented the use of..
hatchets, awls, needles, and sharp objects
New Stone Age or the Neolithic Age occurred between 8,000 and 6,000 BCE and included…
polished tools, domesticated animals, the wheel and agriculture. Some pottery and textiles appeared late in the era.
Bronze Age occurring around 3,000 BCE saw…
the development of metals and the first civilizations.
Earliest civilizations arose in fertile river valleys of…
Mesapotamia, Nile, the Indus, and the Hwang Ho
requisites of a civilizations are:
system of writing, agriculture, a calendar, use of metals rather than stone, a territorial state
Earliest Civilizations. When and Where?
Tirgris-Euphrates Valley of Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) and the Nile Valley of Egypt. 4000BCE-3000BCE
around water. Much attracted animal life made hunting east. husbandry and herding of animals provided stable food supply. RIvers would overflow provided a means to experiment with crop growing and irrigation.
Fertile Crescent location
West by Mediterranean Sea on South Arabian Desert
developed quickly because of the constant influx of invaders and migrants who entered and annexed land from whom they absorbed and supplemented their civilization
invented wheel, irrigation, devices for raising water, system of cuneifor writing, learned to divide time, build boats for trade
COde of Hammurabi (first written code of laws
pyramids, hieroglyphic writing, perservation fo bodies post mortem, paper from papyrus, decimal system, solar calendar; laid framework for science and astronomy
Mesopotamia Societies social, political and religious characteristics
autocatic, single ruler who was often head of religion, abide or die