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Flashcards in Anemia Deck (89)
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0

Diagnostic evaluation of anima starts with ______

Hemoglobin

1

Anemia is a disorder characterized by a reduction in the amount of hemoglobin present in blood and a decrease in RBC count. The blood hemoglobin concentration is believed to be a better marker of the total cell mass than than which other test?

hematocrit

2

Classification of Anemia Based on what 2 things?

RBC size and RDW

3

With a cell size of Microcytosis (MCV <80) which condition would show a normal RDW? An increased RDW?

Normal: Thalassemia minor
Increased: Iron deficiency anemia and G6PD deficiency

4

With a cell size of Nomocytosis which condition would show a normal RDW? An increased RDW?

Normal: Acute bleeding
Increased: Early or partially treated iron or vitamin deficiency and sickle cell disease

5

With a cell size of Macrocytosis (MCV >100) which condition would show a normal RDW? An increased RDW?

Normal: Aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome
Increased: Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, alcohol, liver disease

6

Whenever anemia is suspected or discovered with a CBC, order a ______ __________ to check for cell abnormalities.

peripheral smear

7

Basophilic stippling representing aggregated ribosomes can be seen in which 3 conditions?

-thalassemia syndromes
-iron deficiency
-lead poisoning

8

Howell-Jolly bodies are nuclear remnants seen in which 3 conditions?

-asplenia
-pernicious anemia
-severe iron deficiency

9

Cabot's ring bodies are nuclear remnants seen in which 3 conditions?

-lead toxicity
-pernicious anemia
-hemolytic anemias

10

Heinz's bodies are from denatured aggregated hemoglobin and can be seen in which 3 conditions?

-thalassemia
-asplenia
-chronic liver disease

11

Which 2 tests detect Spherocytes? What do they indicate?

1. Coombs DAT: indicates immune mediated hemolytic anemia (AIHA) 2. Osmotic fragility increased: indicates spherocytosis (HS)

12

When looking for Fragments, which test would be best, and what does it assess?

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) screen to assess: intravascular thrombus

13

With Sickle cells and target cells, which screen is used?

Hemoglobin electrophoresis

14

When screening for Nucleated RBC which exams would be used?

1. Hemoglobin electrophoresis (HGBE)
2. Bone marrow examination

15

Microcytic hypochromic anemia is caused by which 3 main things and which 4 minor things:

Main:
1. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA)
2. Thalassemia
3. Sideroblastic anemia

Minor:
1. Anemia of chronic disease (some cases)
2. Pyridoxine Responsive anemia
3. Chronic blood loss
4. Lead poisoning

16

Lack of iron or inability to use iron for heme production for Iron deficiency is a result of which 3 situations?

1. Chronic Blood loss
2. Dietary lack during high demand
3. Poor absorption of food iron

17

Lack of iron or inability to use iron for heme production for poor iron mobilization from body stores results in what?

inflammatory states

18

Lack of iron or inability to use iron for heme production for Sideroblastic anemia is due to what?

Failure of iron incorporation into protoporphyrin ring leads to RBC iron precipitation called Basophilic stippling and causes polychromasia

19

Defective globin chain synthesis involves which 2 conditions?

1.  Alpha-thalassemia
2.  Beta-thalassemia

20

What is the most common microcytic hypochromic anemia?

Iron deficiency anemia

21

In the GI tract, iron is chiefly absorbed from the _________

Duodenum

22

Dietary Iron absorption is facilitated by what?

gastric acid secretion

23

What has come to be recognized as the "gold" standard operation for treatment of morbid obesity? Exclusion of nearly all of the stomach & the entire duodenum predisposes these patients to develop vitamin/mineral deficiencies.

RYGB: Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

24

Average western diet includes what daily intake of iron?  What is the % of absorption?

-10-30 mg daily
-Absorption is 5-10% of intake

25

Total body iron is about ___ grams

4

26

Total iron absorption is approximately 1 or 2 mg a day, balanced by about the same daily loss, mostly through what 2 means?

-skin desquamation
-in the stool

27

Many common foods interfere with iron absorption, what are 3 examples?

-phytates in cereal & grains
-vegetables (very high in soy)
-casein in milk

28

___% of body total is incorporated into hemoglobin
___% of body total is stored as ferritin

70%
30%

29

What transports absorbed iron from intestine to bone marrow?

Transferrin