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Flashcards in Anemia Deck (46)
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1
Q
What are three variable components that RBC mass depends on?
A
Splenocontraction
Breed/Age
Exercise level
2
Q
What % of RBC mass is in the spleen?
A
30%
3
Q
Splenocontraction can increase the PCV up to what %?
A
50%
4
Q
T/F: Hot blooded horses have a higher PCV than cold-blooded horses
A
TRUE
Hot-blooded=thoroughbreds
Cold-blooded=draft horses
5
Q
How many blood groups are in the horse?
A
8 blood groups
6
Q
T/F: There is NO true universal donor in the equine species
A
TRUE
7
Q
What are the dependent factors of CS development in an anemic horse?
A
Rate and severity of RBC decrease
8
Q
What are general CS of acute anemia?
A
Poor performance, tachycardia, tachypnea, pale MM, lethargy, systolic murmur
9
Q
T/F: regeneration can be assessed on a peripheral blood smear of the horse?
A
FALSE
10
Q
What is a normal characteristic of blood cells on a smear that can be mistaken for agglutination?
A
Rouleaux formation
11
Q
What is free hemoglobin associated with?
A
Intravascular hemolysis
12
Q
What are the three pathophysioogic mechanisms of anemia?
A
Inadequate erythrocyte production
Increased erythrocyte destruction
Blood loss
13
Q
What are the three causes of depression anemia?
A
Deficiencies in vitamin and minerals essential for RBC production
Chronic/systemic disease interfering with normal erythropoiesis
Damaged bone marrow or bone marrow components
14
Q
What is TRUE iron deficiency defined by in the horse?
A
microcytic hypochromic anemia-only seen in late stages
15
Q
Fe deficient anemia in the horse is most commonly associated with what?
A
Chronic blood loss from parasites, GI lesions or hemostatic defects
16
Q
What is another name for functional iron deficiency?
A
Anemia of inflammatory disease
17
Q
T/F: Horses with anemia of inflammatory disease commonly have a PCV under 18%
A
FALSE-doesn't typically drop under 18%
18
Q
What is the most common cause of anemia in the horse?
A
Inflammatory disease
19
Q
What is the carrier protein responsible for iron transport and distribution in the body
A
Transferrin
20
Q
What is the only safe parenteral preparation of iron for the horse?
A
Iron cacodylate
21
Q
T/F: Iron supplementation is indicated for anemia of inflammatory disease
A
FALSE-anemia is of little to no concern
22
Q
What are two causes of increased red cell destruction?
A
Oxidative damage or immune mediated mechanisms
23
Q
How does oxidative damage affect the blood?
A
Changes iron form ferrous form to ferric form leading to formation of methemoglobin which cannot carry O2.
24
Q
What are CS of methemoglobin?
A
Brown discoloration to MM, blood and urine
25
Q
What are some infectious diseases that cause increased RBC destruction?
A
EIA, piroplasmosis
26
Q
What are some toxic agents that cause increased RBC destruction?
A
Red maple leaves, onions, monensin and phenothiazines
27
Q
What are some immune causes of increased RBC destruction?
A
Neonatal isoerythrolysis, IMHA and incompatible blood transfusions
28
Q
What is the only intraerythrocytic parasitic disease that affects horses?
A
Piroplasmosis-equine babesiosis
29
Q
What is the vector for babesiosis?
A
Tick vectors- Dermatocentor nitens
30
Q
What are the CS of babesiosis?
A
Fever, hemolytic anemia, icterus, death
31
Q
What are four differentials of babesiosis?
A
Equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis, equine infectious anemia, hemolytic anemia, liver failure
32
Q
How long post babesiosis infection does it take for antibodies to be detected?
A
14 days
33
Q
What is a reportable disease in horses that is also known as swamp fever?
A
Equine infectious anemia
34
Q
What is the causative agent of EIA?
A
Lentivirus of retrovirus family
35
Q
What cell does EIA target?
A
Macrophages-integrate into the host genome
36
Q
How is EIA transmitted?
A
Interrupted feeding by hematophageous arthropods required
Biting insects (tabanids-deer and stable flies) or mosquitoes
37
Q
What is the mechanism of anemia from EIA?
A
Immune mediated hemolysis
Decreased intravascular erythrocyte survival time
Decreased bone marrow erythrocyte production
38
Q
What does acute EIA cause?
A
Extravascular hemolytic anemia
39
Q
What are CS associated with acute EIA?
A
thrombocytopenia, fever, depression, petechial hemorrhage
No anemia typicaly seen
40
Q
What are CS associated with subacute/chronic EIA?
A
Recurrent episodes of fever, depression, anemia and icterus, lymphadenopathy, weight loss
41
Q
What are the two dx tests used for EIA?
A
Coggins test
ELISA
42
Q
Which EIA dx test is more sensitive and specific?
A
ELISA
43
Q
What is the internationally accepted dx test for EIA?
A
Coggins test- gold standard test
44
Q
Why can the Coggins test give false negatives for EIA dx?
A
Takes about 45 days to produce detectable levels of Ab
45
Q
What are general recommendations when a horse tests positive for EIA?
A
Recommended to isolate for life or euthanize
46
Q
Why must 200 yards be kept between a EIA horse and a non-infected horse?
A
The double fencing pasture method is important because the flies will only fly around 200 meters before turning back around to re-feed on the previous horse