Definition of Anemia
A decrease in the circulating red blood cell (RBC) mass
Usual Criteria for anemia
(Men Hgb and HCT, Wonem Hhb and HCT)
Women: Hgb<12 g/dl, Hct<35%
Men: Hgb<14 g/dl
The usual ratio of Hgb to Hct is
Definition of hematocrit
The volume of packed RBCs
Definition of hemoglobin
the molecule which binds and transports oxygen
Constituents of hemoglobin
Heme: protoporphyrin and iron
Globin: the protein portion
What is the lifespan of one meager red blood cell?
What happens to "old RBCs"?
they are removed by the spleen
What are the normal ranges for Hgb and Hct in males and females?
male: 14-18 g/dl
female: 12-16 gdl
(but do note that these ranges can vary a bit from lab to lab)
How is an RBC formed? (answer is looking for a series of steps)
most immature RBC is a pronormoblast
pronormoblast->nucleated RBCs->then the nucleus disintegrates forming the immature cell called the "reticulocyte"
reticulocytes are released into the bloodstream and mature into RBCs in 1-2 days
What is the retic count?
an indication of RBC production
How would one go about finding a retic count?
Rectics stain blue on smear
"Lots of blue means lots of new"
Normal rectic count?
What is polychromasia?
(while nothing else is addressed on this slide's test, it may be best to recall that polychromasia aka reticulocytosis refers to an overabundance or RBCs and there are generally 3 recognized forms.. may be addressed later?)
What are 3 causes of anemia?
1. decreased RBC production (could be due to iron deficience, B12 or folate deficiency or chronic disease)
2. Increased RBC destruction (due to hemolysis)
3. Blood loss (menstural, GI bleeding, trauma)
How is RBC size determined?
by viewing a peripheral blood smear under microscope
by viewing a computerized value granted to you by a machine