Anesthesia Quiz Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Surgery Lab I > Anesthesia Quiz > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anesthesia Quiz Deck (79):
1

On what size patients would you use a non-rebreathing system?

<3kg 

2

What is the normal SaO2?

95-100%

3

Where can you feel for a pulse in SA and LA?

SA: labial, digital, dorsal pedal, metatarsal LA: auricular, transverse facial, facial

4

What is the normal heart rate for a horse?

28-44

5

What size cuff should be used for Doppler/Oscillometric?

WIDTH = 30-40% the circumference of the limb If too big or tight - underestimates If too small or loose - overestimates

6

What is the normal temperature for a dog?

100.4-102.2

7

What are pulse ox results affected by?

Tissue thickness

Hypoperfusion, vasoconstriction 

Anemia

Pigment of tongue

Altered Hb Binding: -CO/CN poisoning (will read higher than the actual %), Methemoglobinemia (reads in mid 80s)

8

What type of waveform is this? 

What are some possible causes?

Q image thumb

Rebreathing waveform (not returning to baseline)

Possible Causes: 

Faulty expiratory valve

Too low fresh gas flow in non-rebreathing system

Expired Soda Lime (malfunction in Co2 absorber)

Insufficient expiratory time 

 

 

9

What are the components of the ECG wave?

P wave - atrial depolarization QRS wave - ventricular depolarization; atrial repolarization T wave - ventricular repolarization

10

What is the normal respiration rate for a dog?

10-30

11

Is PaCO2 respiratory or metabolic? Hco3-?

PaCo2 is respiratory 

HCO3- is metabolic

12

What type of system is this?

Q image thumb

Mapleson D 

(Non-rebreathing)

13

What is the normal heart rate for a sheep?

70-90

14

Where should the cuff be placed for oscillometric BP measurement?

**At level of base of heart SA: distal radius, distal tibia, metatarsus LA: Metacarpus, Tail

15

What is the normal SaO2 on 100% O2? on air?

100%

95%

16

What is the normal temperature for a cat?

101.3-102.2

17

What is a normal SpO2 reading?

>95%

18

What type of waveform is this?

 

Q image thumb

Expiratory obstruction/Bronchospasm 

Give B2 agonist

"Shark Fin" appearance

19

How do you calculate what size reservoir bag to use?

15 ml/kg * 6 * BW (kg) = mL of bag 

**ROUND UP

20

Is PaCO2 an acid or a base? HCO3-?

PaCO2 is an acid

HCO3- is a base

21

What is the normal heart rate for a cat?

120-180

22

What is the normal respiration rate for a sheep?

12-20

23

What type of system is this?

Q image thumb

Circle (Y) 

(Rebreathing)

24

Where should the leads be placed in a SA and what leads do you use?

Lead II RA = white LA = Black LL = Red right is white, smoke over fire

25

Why do we use ECG?

record of heart's electrical activity (action potentials) from body surface. Does NOT indicate the heart is contracting. HR, Rhythm, Morphology, Cardiac oxygenation, electrolyte disturbances

26

What is normal ETCO2?

35-45 mmHg

27

What is TCO2?

Almost the same as HCO3- --> 99% of Co2 is HCO3-

28

What is the normal PaCO2?

35-45 mmHg

29

What are some advantages of the Doppler BP?

Excellent pulse monitor Fewer artifacts from movement, arrhythmia, vasoconstriction Can measure BP on small animals too

30

What is the normal respiration rate for a cat?

20-40

31

Define Hypothermia

What are some consequences?

<96

Below 94 MAC decreases - less anesthetic required

Recovery is prolonged 
CV function is depressed

32

What are the induction/recovery and maintenance flow rates for large animals (>50kg**)? 

Induction/Recovery = 20-50 mL/kg/min

Maintenance = 10-20 mL/kg/min

33

How would you treat high lactate?

Give fluids

34

What are the normal blood pressures for a horse?

SAP: 118-168 DAP: 76-116 MAP: 95-133

35

Which letter corresponds with ETCo2?

Q image thumb

D

36

Where should the leads be placed in a LA and what leads do you use?

Lead I Right jugular furrow (Whithers) = white ventral midline under apex of heart = black left flank = red

37

What are some disadvantages of the Doppler BP?

**SYSTOLIC pressure only unreliable for diastolic BP or Mean BP size and placement of cuff affects results underestimates systolic pressure in cats hard to place, more labour intensive, noisy

38

How do you treat hypothermia?

Turn down/off vapourizer

Give warm fluids

Reduce skin exposure to air

Turn on Warmer (blanket, bair hugger, hot dog) 

39

Which artery do you use in horses for direct BP measurement?

Facial artery

40

Where do you place an esophageal stethoscope?

Insert at midline dorsal to ET tube along the palatine raphe

41

What type of system is this?

Q image thumb

Universal F

42

Hypoxia is define as what in regards to PaO2 and SaO2?

PaO2 <60mmHg

SaO2 <90%

43

What type of waveform is this?

Q image thumb

Cardiogenic oscillations

(heart beating against lungs)

44

What does a pulse oximeter measure? where does it go?

Measures SpO2 - % of Hb saturated with oxygen

Does on tongue

45

What is the normal PaO2?

80-110mmHg in air 

>500mmHg in 100% O2

46

How would your PaCO2 levels change if you were hyperventilating or hypoventilating?

Hyperventilation - decreased PaCO2

Hypoventilation - increased PaCO2

47

How do you treat hyperthermia?

Turn up vapourizer

Give bolus fluids 

cold packs in inguinal areas

alcohol to foot pads/ears

turn off warmer

48

Define HYPOTENSION in terms of SAP and MAP

SAP <80 mmHg MAP <60 mmHg Below these numbers kidneys will not get adequate perfusion or be able to maintain GFR, cerebral perfusion will be compromised

49

What type of ventilation is this?

What would be their ETCo2 level?

Q image thumb

Hypoventilation

Hypercapnea (Co2 accumulation in bloodstream) - ETCO2 >45mmHg

50

What is the normal for BE?

If BE is + what does this mean? If -?

0 +/- 4

If  BE is + = metabolic alkalosis

If BE is - = metabolic acidosis

51

What are some advantages of oscillometric BP measurement?

**Systolic, Diastolic and Mean BP obtained Easy to place Automatic readings, less labour intensive

52

What are the most common arrhythmias under anesthesia?

Sinus Bradycardia Sinus Tachycardia 1st and 2nd degree AV blocks

53

What is the normal temperature for a sheep?

102-104

54

What is the normal temperature for a horse?

99-101.0

55

What are the 5 causes of Hypoxemia?

Ventilation/Perfusion Mismatch

Hypoventilation 

Low FiO2

Right to Left Shunt

Diffusion Impairment

 

**Very Happy Lovers Rarely Die**

56

What is the normal heart rate for a dog?

60-120

57

What is the normal PaO2 on 100% O2? On air?`

500mmHg

110mmHg

58

What are the normal blood pressures for a dog?

SAP: 90-140 DAP: 50-80 MAP: 60-100

59

What is the normal respiration rate for a horse?

8-20

60

How do you calculate the psi remaining in an E Cylinder? and how many minutes are left?

2200psi/660L = psi left on E tank/ X Litres

 

X Litres/(Flow liters/min) = minutes remaining

61

Where should the doppler cuff be placed in relation to the probe?

Proximal

62

How do you perform a leak check?

Set all gauges to zero

Close APL valve

Occlude patient end of breathing system

Pressurize system to 30cmH2O with O2 flush

Ensure the pressure remains fixed for 30 seconds

--> if leak is present run on oxygen flow rate to 300mL

--> if leak stops, this is acceptable

Turn off the flow meter (if on)

Open APL valve

 

If there is a persistent leak check the following: 

-Co2 cannister (most common leak area)

-Expiratory and Inspiratory Valves

-Other connections

63

Where do you obtain a sample for your blood gas in SA and LA?

SA: dorsal pedal artery 

LA: facial artery, transverse facial artery, auricular artery

64

What is the normal pH of the blood?

7.35-7.45

65

What are some examples of non-rebreathing systems?

Mapleson D 

Mapleson F

66

What is capnography used for?

Monitors breath by breath ventilation, apnea, resp. rate Assess intubation (CO2 indicates proper intubation) Monitors return to circulation, estimate of CO in CPR Rebreathing CO2

67

What is your O2 flow rate in a non-rebreathing system?

Needs to be 2-3x tidal volume 

300 mL/kg/min

68

What are the normal blood pressures for a cat?

SAP: 80-140 DAP: 55-75 MAP: 60-100

69

What are 2 ways to measure HR?

Esophageal stethoscope, ECG

70

What is the normal HCO3-?

24 +/- 4 

cats = 22 +/- 2

sheep = 30 +/- 5

71

Define Hyperthermia 

What are some consequences?

>102

Higher anesthetic requirements (increases the MAC)

Damage to CNS

R/O malignant hyperthermia

72

What are some examples on Rebreathing systems? What patients do we use them on?

Circle (Y) hose (sheep)

Universal F (Donkey/SA)

73

What are the induction/recovery and maintenance flow rates for small animals (**<50kg**)?

Induction/Recovery = 50-100 mL/kg/min

Maintenance = 20-50 mL/kg/min

74

What are some disadvantages of oscillometric BP measurement?

Less reliable in patients <10kg Movement, stress, vasoconstriction, hypotension, weak pulse - may cause inaccurate readings Not reading constantly - may have arrest between readings

75

What type of waveform is this? What type of ventilation?

What would be their ETCO2 level?

Q image thumb

Hyperventilation Waveform

Blowing off too much Co2 - decrease in Co2

<35mmHg

76

Where can we measure temperature? Advantages of each? 

Core Body Temp: -Esophagus  (more biologically relevant - temp probe to mid thorax)

Peripheral Body Temp: -Pharync, Rectal, Nasal (colder than core)

 

77

What is the normal Lactate?

<2.0 mmol/L

78

What is the definition of HYPOTENSION in SA and LA?

SA: Mean <60 Systolic <80

LA: Mean <70 Systolic <90

79

Which arteries should be used for doppler in the dog, sheep, horse?

Dog: palmar digital artery, dorsal pedal, coccygeal (tail) Sheep: median artery Horse: tail (coccygeal)