Flashcards in Animal Diversity Deck (149):
How are animals classified and who devised the system?
Classified according to the Hierarchial System devised by Linnaeus.
What is the layout for the classification system?
What is the taxonomy for a human?
What is specific to the phylum, chordata?
Animals have a 'backbone'
What are the four main characteristics for an animal?
Movement and nervous systems.
How many phyla are within the animal kingdom?
How many know species are there of the phyla, Cycliophora and where are they found?
Three known species which are found on the mouth parts of lobsters.
What is the estimated common ancestor between all animals?
A colonial flagellate
What phyla are sponges classified under and how many species are known?
Porifera and 5,500 known species.
Describe cells in a sponge
Cells are embedded in spongin and are supported by spicules.
How do sponges gain oxygen and food?
Provided from water currents that are generated by collar cells.
How do collar cells generate water currents?
Beating flagellum creates the water current.
What is a collar cell made up of and what are they alternatively known as?
Made up of micro hairs which filter tiny food particles. Sometimes know as choanocytes.
Name the cells sponges are made up of
Pinacocytes, porocytes and amoebocytes.
What is the role of pinacocyte cells?
They are contractile and so act a bit like muscle. They are able to slightly change the shape of the sponge and so can control water currents and also produce collagen.
What is the role of porocyte cells?
Allow water to pass through the body walls
What is the role of amoebocyte cells?
They move around the body and carry out a number of tasks.
Some secrete spicules or spongin and others become reproductive cells.
Why are spicules important?
Important for species identification and provide skeletal support.
What do species classed under the phyla Porifera all have in common?
All aquatic animals, mostly marine found up to 5.5 miles down.
How much water can a large sponge filter in a day?
Why is embryonic analysis important?
Provides key differences between animal groups.
Describe the embryonic development of a sponge
Zygote (cleavage) eight cell stage (cleavage) Blastula (gastrulation) Gastrula.
What are the two layers of cells called that make up a diploblastic embryo?
Endoderm and ectoderm.
What do the endoderm and ectoderm develop into?
Ectoderm develops into outer skin and endoderm develops into the gut lining.
What is the third layer called in a triploblastic embryo found in other animal groups?
What and how many species are classfied under the phyla, Cnidaria?
10,000 known species of sea anemone, jellyfish and coral.
What are the five main features of animals in the phyla Cnidaria?
Bodies contain tissues
Nematocysts (specialised stinging cells)
Radial body symmetry
What are the two different body shapes of animals in Cnidaria?
Hydroid (sea anemone)
What separates the two layers of cells found in a cnidarian body?
Mesogloea which is thick and jelly like in medusoid forms.
Hydra is a cnidarian species but why is it unusual?
Because it lives in freshwater.
What body form to corals take and what are they made up of?
Hydroid body form that is made up of a calcareous skeleton which is secreted by the coral.
What are siphonophorans?
A colonial hydrozoan that float using a gas bladder.
What are sea wasps and box jellyfish known as?
Describe how nematocysts work?
They entangle and penetrate prey and inject them with poison.
What and how many species are classed under the phyla, Platyhelminthes?
20,000 known species of parasite, some which are very important to humans.
What are the main features of animals classed under the phyla, Platyhelminthes?
Body is organised into organs.
Name some species classed in platyhelminthes phyla
Freshwater and marine free living flatworms.
Large terrestrial flatworm.
What would a cross section of a flat worm show?
Cilia and complex musculature.
What is the name of the most important liver fluke and where is it commonly found?
Clonorchis which is commonly found where fish is eaten raw.
What do blood flukes like Schistosoma cause in humans?
Causes schistosomiasis in around 200 million people world wide. Causes pain, anemic and dysentary.
What is the name of a highly specialised parasitic flatworm that lives in the digestive tract of vertebrates. (4000 species)
How has the mesoderm developed in platyhelminthes species like the flatworm?
The evolution of the mesoderm has allowed for the development of a fluid filled body cavity in which organs can be stored.
What is the name of the fluid filled cavity in a flatworm?
What is the fluid filled cavity called in a nematode?
How many know species are classed under the phyla, Nematoda?
What are the main features of animals in the phyla, Nematoda?
Fluid filled pseudocoel
Longitudinal muscles present
What would be seen in a cross section of a nematode worm?
Oviduct, uterus, ovary, muscle, intestine, pseudocoel, excretory duct, cuticle and nerve cord.
Describe the life cycle of a hook worm
Larvae enter body through skin or mouth and travel through the bloodstream to the lungs. Lung secretion containing larvae is coughed up and swallowed. Larvae pass into intestines where they mature into adults. Sharp hooked adult head clings to intestines. Females produce eggs and are left in the stool so eggs hatch into larvae in the soil.
What is special about C. elegans?
First species to have genome sequenced and only organism to have all 959 of its cells development understood.
What does body segmentation allow an animal to do?
Facilitates specialisation of different body regions and allows the animal to alter its body shape in complex ways due to segmented muscle clusters.
What is the original body plan for segmented animals?
Every organ is repeated in every segment.
What and how many known species are found in the phyla, Annelida?
16,500 species of true worms and leeches.
What are the main features of animals classed under the phyla Annelida?
Fluid filled coelom which is divided by septa
Metameric segmentation (each segment has a complete set of organs)
Locomotion as segments can move independently.
Parapodia (fleshy appendages) with chitinous bristles called chaetae.
Tubular blood system with a contractile dorsal blood vessel.
Giant axons in nervous system.
How do animal in Annelida respire?
Through the skin, parapodia and gills.
What are the most familiar species of annelids? But where are most species found?
Earthworms are most common but most oligochaetes are freshwater or marine.
What is another diverse aquatic species of annelids?
Name an active predatory polychaete with a well developed head and parapodia
What are Sabellids?
Tube dwelling polychaetes that filter particles from water.
What and how many species are classed under the phyla, Mollusca?
50,000 species of slugs, snails, squid, cuttlefish and octopus.
What are the main features of animals classed under the phyla, Mollusca?
Specialised foot for locomotion.
Mantle (sheet of tissue) that encloses the mantle cavity which contains gills or a lung and is responsible for secreting the shell.
Radula (rasping tongue)
Open circulatory system.
What do Mollusca animals feed on?
Wide diversity between carnivorous, herbivorous and ciliary filter feeders.
Although animals of Mollusca have invaded land, what do they require?
Humidity, shelter and calcium.
What do most molluscs have in common?
Shell, head and a foot.
What are Bivalves and how do they collect their food?
Successful group of filter feeders that use an enlarged gill to collect food through specialised siphons.
What are some terrestrial Gastropods?
Snails and slugs
What are some Cephalopods?
Octopus and squid
What distinguishes between the two main animal groups of Mollusca?
The development of the blastopore.
What are the two major animal groups of Mollusca called?
Protostomes and Deuterostomes.
How does the blastopore develop in Protostomes?
develops into mouth and anus develops later
How does the blastopore develop in Deuterostomes?
Develops into anus and mouth develops later.
What and how many species are classed under the phyla, Echinodermata?
7,000 species of sea urchins, sea stars, sand dollars, sea cucumbers, crinoids and brittle stars.
What are the main features of animals classed under the phyla, Echinodermata?
Radial symmetry (usually penta radial)
Internal skeleton of calcified plates.
Water filled vascular system.
What is the water vascular system involved with?
Gas exchange, locomotion and feeding.
What is special about echinoderms?
Able to regenerate tissues and organs.
What phylum has the most successful organisms to adapt to life on land?
What are the four major Arthropod subphyla?
What and how many species are classed under Myriapoda?
11,500 species of centipedes and millipedes.
What and how many species are classed under Chelicerata?
70, 000 species of Arachnids, horseshoe crabs and sea spiders.
What and how many species are classed under Crustacea?
68,000 species of crabs, shrimps, barnacles, lobsters and woodlice.
What and how many species are classed under the subphyla, Hexapoda?
1,000,000 species of insect.
What percentage of species are arthropods?
What is the smallest arthropod?
Parasitic mite at 0.1mm long.
What is the largest arthropod?
Japanese spider crab at 3.7m long.
What are the general characteristics of arthropods?
Metameric segmentation (each segment contains most of chief organs of the body)
Open circulatory system (haemocoel and dorsal contractile heart)
What are the layers that make up an exoskeleton?
Epicuticle - thin waterproof waxy surface layer.
Protocuticle - exocuticle and endocuticle.
Epidermis - inner cellular layer.
What is the main disadvantage of having an exoskeleton?
What takes place after ecdysis?
Tanning which is when the cuticle is stabilized and hardened.
What is tagmatisation?
When there is usually one pair of jointed appendages per segment. So they are grouped together to provide specialised functions (tagmata)
What functions may tagmata be involved with?
Respiration, nutrition, locomotion or reproduction.
What is the tagmata of an insect?
Head, thorax and abdomen.
How are appendages moved?
By a complex muscular system where pairs of antagonistic muscles are attached to the inside of the exoskeleton.
Why is an arthropods size limited?
Because of the exoskeleton and by their passive respiration.
How many known species of arachnids are there?
How do arachnids digest their food?
Digest prey externally and suck it up in a liquid form.
What are the general characteristics of an arachnid?
Two body divisions - Cephalothorax and abdomen.
6 pairs of appendages - 2 chelicerae
up to 12 simple eyes
How is segmentation reduced in spiders?
Abdomen is unsegmented
What are the features of the order, Scorpiones?
Pedipalps are enlarged as pincers.
Chelicerae are small and triarticulate.
Sting on tip of abdomen to inject venom.
What species are found in the order, Uropygi?
Tropical and semitropical whip scorpions and vinegaroons.
What are the main features of species in the order Uropygi?
Chelicerae modified for chewing food.
Pedipalps are large heavy pincers.
First pair of legs are long and sensory and not used for walking.
Whip like tail.
Anal glads produce acetic and caprylic acid.
What species are found in the order, Solpugida?
Wind scorpions and sun spiders.
What are the features of species in the order Solpugida?
Pedipalps are leg like and sticky, used to catch prey.
Chelicerae well developed as pincers.
Abdomen segmented but no sting.
Where are the species in the order Pseudoscorpionida found?
Live in soil, under bark and in birds nests.
What are the features of pseudoscorpions?
Abdomen segmented but no tail.
Chelicerae small and used to produce silk.
Pedipalps developed as pincers and inject poison.
What and how many species are found in the order, Acari?
25,000 species of mites and ticks.
How do mites and ticks show great diversty?
Some are carnivores in soil, herbivores that attack plants, fungus eating, freshwater and marine and some are endo and ectoparasites.
What pathogens can mites and ticks carry?
Rocky mountain spotted fever.
Asian scrub typhus.
What are the features of the species found in the order, Acari?
Small chelicerae adapted as pincers.
Small pedipalps as sensory functions.
Many species produce silk from the mouth.
What species is found in the order, Opiliones?
Vegetarian harvestmen spiders.
What are the features of the species found in the order, Opiliones?
One pair of eyes on tubercles.
Chelicerae are small and used to chew food.
Pedipalps often long and leg like.
What are the features of the spider found in the order, Araneae?
Pedipalps are leg like and chelicerae modified into fangs.
How do spiders jump?
By pumping blood into their legs.
What species of spider are found in the order, Araneae?
Jumping spiders, wolf spiders and crab spiders.
What is unique about the wolf spider?
They hunt but do not build webs.
How do crab spiders catch their prey?
Camouflage and then ambush their prey.
How many known species are found in the subphlum, Crustacea?
What are the features of species found under Crustacea?
Cuticle is calcified
Two pairs of antennae
Appendages are biramous (divided into two branches)
What are the two branches of the appendages for crustacea called?
Exopodite and endopodite.
What and how many species are found in Decapoda?
8,500 species of shrimp, crab and lobster.
What are the main features of species found under Decapoda?
First walking legs adapted into pincers (chelipeds)
Head and thoracic segments fused into carapace.
What is the importance of a carapace?
It overhangs sides and encloses the gills within chambers.
How many segments do crustaceans have?
How many segments are found in the cephalothorax of crustaceans? and what are they?
Cheliped (first leg)
How many segments are found in the abdomen of crustaceans? and what are they?
What species is classed under Stomatopoda?
What and how many species are found in Isopoda?
4,000 species, marine and freshwater. Also including woodlice.
How have woodlice adapted to become terrestrial?
Swimming legs adapted for gas exchange.
What species is found in Copepoda?
Marine crustaceans like abundant planktonic organisms.
What species are found in Branchiopoda and what is special about their eggs?
Daphnia's and Artemia and their eggs are highly resistant and can survive long periods of drought.
What species is found in Cirripedia?
What is special about barnacles?
Only sessile crustaceans and they're head degenerate.
What is found in the anatomy of a goose barnacle?
What are the general characteristics of hexapods?
Head, thorax and abdomen. With 1 pair of antennae, 3 pairs of legs and 2 pairs of wings.
What are the two main divisions of hexapods?
Apterygota - Primitive insects that never evolved wings.
Pterygota - Advanced insects that have winged adults.
How do hexapods develop with incomplete/gradual development.
Incomplete development. Egg to nymph to adult.
What develops between instars of hexapods
Gradual wing development.
How to hexapods develop with complete development?
Egg to larva to pupa to adult.
What are the advantages of complete development?
Exploitation of different resources at different times.
Specialised stages for growth, dispersal and over wintering.
What is the mouth part of a beetle used for?
What is the mouth part of a butterfly and moth used for?
What is the mouth part of a bee used for?
What is the mouth part of a fly used for?
Describe wings of damselflies and dragonflies.
Two similar pairs of wings that operate independantly.
Describe wings of a grasshopper.
The forewings are leathery.
Describe wings of a beetle
Forewings form hard elytra
How many pairs of wings do a fly have?
How are the front limbs of a preying mantis adapted?
Adapted to catch prey.
What do flies have on their appendages?
Hooks and adhesive pads.
What do fleas have on their appendages?