Flashcards in Animal Health In Production Systems Wks 4-7 Deck (100):
The most commonly farmed deer are..?
Red deer (reindeer are second most commonly farmed)
Male deer are called stags for all breeds except...?
Wapiti (bull) and fallow (buck)
Deer numbers in Australia are around...?
Half the world's farmed deer population is farmed where?
What are some things that influence deer farming?
Temperate species of deer include...? They have a strongly seasonal reproductive cycles.
Tropical species include...?
Fallow, red, wapiti
Rusa, chital, sambar, hog, white-tail, blackbuck
The temperate species of deer calve in ________ and wean before the rut (________).
The tropical species calve _____________ and their weaning time is variable.
What are some things to consider when setting up a deer farm?
Fences/yards (visual and physical barriers)
Herd size (20-40 is ideal)
Pasture (high quality, improved)
Shelter (esp. to hide young)
What are the stocking rates for fallow doe, red hind and rusa hind?
What are some changes that occur in stags in preparation for reproduction?
🔹aggression/ territory marking
🔹30% body loss
Female deer reach puberty at what age? Their fertility peak occurs at what age?
What is velvet harvesting?
Amputation of live antler prior to calcification from male deer
What is the growth timeline for antlers?
The quality of antlers is based on what?
Cast: July/ August
Growth: September/ January
Maturation: Jan/ Feb
How many tynes are present.
Which type of camel has one hump and which has two?
One: Dromedary (Africa)
Two: Bactrian (east Asia)
When was the first camel imported into Australia and when was the first camel stud established?
1840, 25 years later (1865)
How many camels are there in Australia approximately?
What are some uses for camels?
🔹Meat (and milk)
🔹Dung for fuel
Camels are true ruminants. True or false?
False. They function like ruminants however their stomach lacks the structural divisions that a true ruminant has (they have functional divisions)
Microbial digestion in the camel gut occurs where? Where is the glandular area?
In C1 and C2.
Glandular area in C1
South American camelids include 4 main types including...? Which is most common in Australia?
The gestation length of an alpaca is around how many days? How long do they live?
What are the different stages of alpaca development?
Crias (babies) ➡️ Tuis (adolescents) ➡️ Hembras (adult female) or Machos (adult males)
In Australia, 80% of alpacas are in herds of how many animals?
Less than 10
What are the two different types of alpacas and which is most common in Australia?
Huacaya** and Suri (dreadlock-like fleece)
What is the DSE rating of an alpaca?
1-1.2 (if pregnant or lactating, may be up to 2 DSE)
What is the mating age for an alpaca?
When are they weaned?
Generally they should be greater than 45kg and over 12 months old. The males reach sexual maturity at 1-3 years age.
Weaned between 3-6 months of age
Cholesterol= low (5.5-6)
Horses first came to Australia in ....?
1788 on 26 January (first fleet)
What are the main disease threats to the equine industry?
African horse sickness
-->all included in AUSVETPLAN disease strategies
Who regulates the import of horses in Australia? How long are horses held in quarantine facilities?
Australian quarantine and inspection services (AQIS)
2 weeks in the country of origin and 2 weeks in Australia
What is the vaccination schedule for the Hendra vaccine?
Given from 4 months of age.
Two doses are given 3-6 weeks apart followed by a booster 6 months later and then annual vaccination
The key plan in equine disease prevention is...?
The Australian emergency veterinary plan (AUSVETPLAN)
What are the different equine events in Australia?
Dressage, jumping and eventing (English riding disciplines)
Also, endurance rides, western riding (eg. Western pleasure, rodeo and campdrafting), polo, polocrosse and harness racing
Briefly describe dressage.
Horse and rider performs series of predetermined movements in a flat, rectangular arena. The horse has to show different gaits and smooth transition with minimal aids from the rider. Takes at least 4 years to train a horse to Grand Prix level
Jumping events require horse and rider to go over how many obstacles?
What is eventing?
Competition across three disciplines: dressage, endurance and show jumping. It may be run as a 1 or 3-day event.
What breeds of horse currently dominate eventing? When does a vet inspection occur?
Thoroughbreds and TBx
Before the beginning of event and before the last phase
Which breed of horse currently dominate endurance ride (40-160km) events?
Arabian and Arabian xbred
What is the primary role of veterinarians in equine sporting events?
What do pre-ride vet checks entail?
To protect welfare of horses by determining whether they are fit to continue.
Vet checks include: mouth inspection, shoeing/hoof condition, no visual impairment, cardinal signs, minor injuries, gait/lameness
What is a sulky or a gig?
What are hobbles?
Two wheeled cart used in harness riding.
Hobbles are straps connecting the legs on each of the horses sides to help maintain stride.
The Australian stock horse is a breed developed in Aust for _________. It is mainly derived from TBs with the addition of __________.
Arabians, quarterhorses, and other breeds
A stallion is an entire male horse over ___ years of age. What's a rig?
A rig is a cryptorchid male horse
A typical summer cycle for a mare is how many days?
21 (5 days oestrus, 16 days dioestrus, ovulation occurs 24-48 hrs before the end of oestrus)
The first oestrus period after the winter dioestrus is called the __________ and is usually much longer than other oestrus periods. It's also frequently an infertile oestrus.
The first oestrus period after foaling is called the _________ and typically starts _________ after foaling
Foal heat, 10 days (range 5-12)
To produce a foal annually, a mare must conceive within how many days of giving birth?
25 days (based on a 340 day gestation length)
In order to produce foals as soon after the 1st Aug as possible, studs should start serving when?
5th September. Most stop on 31st dec but some continue into early January
In order to have mares ready to serve in September, they need to be exposed to artificiallly lengthened daylight for __________ weeks.
About 10 weeks (start of July)
What are some signs that indicate a mare is in oestrus?
🔹Carry their tail raised
🔹Repeatedly every their clitoris from the clitoral fossa
🔹Void small amounts of urine frequently
🔹Stand in close proximity to another mare
What should a vet look for to confirm oestrus? (6)
🔹Flaccid, red, moist open cervix (seen with a speculum)
🔹No urine pooling in anterior vagina
🔹Flaccid uterus on palpation
🔹Palpable (or visible on US) follicle
🔹Oedematous endometrial folds (US)
🔹Absence of air or fluid in uterus
Most equine follicles will reach a diameter of _______ before they ovulate. Follicles grow ______ a day
Service fees are due when?
Once a single 45-day pregnancy is confirmed
What percentage of mares carry twins? If twins are detected before day _____, they can be separated and one may be killed. If detected after this point, one can only be killed if they _______________.
If both twins are aborted before day ____, the mare can start cycling again.
16, are in separate uterine horns
What happens on day 35 of gestation in a horse?
Because of this event, when is it common to scan mares for twin pregnancies?
Endometrial cups start to form and produce pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (or eCG). This continues whether the pregnancy continues or is lost--> stops them getting into season again.
At day 14 and again at day 20-29
What is Duvaxyn?
Vaccination containing inactivated EHV 1 and 4 to prevent abortion
What is the caslick's procedure?
Procedure performed on broodmares with poor vulval conformation to reduce the incidence of ascending genital tract infections (they seal the dorsal vulval lips together)
What are the three stages of labour in a horse?
1st stage: 4-12 hrs. Foetus alters its position for birth. Mare will often:
Develop areas of patchy sweating
Show signs of abdominal discomfort
Dilate her cervix
End of first stage is demarcated by the waters breaking
2nd stage : 5-20mins. In some cases up to an hour. Red sac is the unruptured chorioallantois, white sac is the amnion
3rd stage: foetal membranes should pass within three hours of birth
How long should you leave between stallion matings?
6 hours (therefore a max of four per day)
Foals should be on their feet within _______ of birth and suckling within _____. A foal will suckle about ____ times per hour in the first week of life, but has reduced to ______ times per hour by the second and third week of life.
A 50kg TB foal needs a total of ____ litres of good quality colostrum which should be sticky, viscous and yellow with SG >________.
What schedule would you follow to feed an orphaned foal?
2L colostrum in first 12 hrs over multiple feeds
First few days of life: 500ml every 1-2 hrs
If successfully weaned off bottle by 5 days, bucket feed 2L every 4 hours
From what age can foals be wormed and vaccinated?
Can be wormed from 4 wks of age.
Any age is suitable for vaccination but they are usually not vaccinated before 3-4 mo.
What does a foal's first vaccination cover and what is the schedule?
Tetanus, strangles and ideally Hendra.
Tetanus: 2 doses, 4 wks apart. Boosters every 5 years
Strangles: 3 doses at 2 week intervals. Boosters annually (or every 6 months)
Hendra: 2 doses, 21-42 days apart. Boosters every 6 months.
Equine herpes virus vaccine can be given to reduce respiratory infections or to reduce abortions in mares. What are the vaccination protocols for these two circumstances?
Resp: 2 doses, 6 wks apart. Booster annually (or 6 monthly)
Abortion: 3 injections- in the 5th, 7th and 9th month of gestation
At what age are foals weaned from their mothers?
6-8 months of age
At what times of the year should the following events occur in a sheep production farm?
🔹Lambing: 3-5 months before pasture senescence
🔹Mating: 5 months prior to lambing
🔹Vaccinations: at marking and at weaning
🔹Castrations: at marking (2 wks after lambing)
🔹Anthelmintic treatments: 2 summer drenches (Dec, Jan/Feb)
🔹Fly control: at marking
🔹Lice treatment: at shearing (summer or early autumn)
🔹Shearing: summer or early autumn
What is the difference between a strategic and tactical treatment?
Strategic treatments are designed to control pathogens at critical lifecycle stages. Tactical treatments are given on an as-needs basis in response to monitoring.
Cashmere is obtained from .....? Mohair is obtained from....?
Several breeds of goats
Angora goats 🐐
What are the three environmental zones sheep production occurs in in Australia?
1. Sheep-cereal zone: low rainfall, sheep can graze stubble
2. Pastoral zone: native pastures and shrubs, unreliable and low rainfall, lower stocking rates, extensive management. Better suited to wool production than meat
3. High rainfall zone: support higher stocking rates. Suits wool production in drier parts and meat production in wetter parts
Why are goats often snatch-reared?
To prevent transmission of disease in colostrum, particularly caprine arthritis and encephalitic virus
Meat producers start lamb sales from what age?
16 weeks old
Most Australian beef exports go to...?
Japan and the US
Describe the two types of fattening systems used in the beef industry.
Grass or feedlot: purchase weaner calves and fatten on grass or grain for sale either to an abattoir or another fattening farm.
Factors selected for when breeding beef cattle are...?
Ease of calving
The average birth weight of a beef calf is...? Females cycle every ______ days.
If you crossed an Angus with a Hereford, what colour combination would you expect in the progeny?
Black body with white face and no horns.
What is a scur?
If horns are present on a cow, what are the different ways they can be removed?
1. Paste (caustic paste)
2. Cut (knife)
3. Gouge (scoop dehorners)
4. Burn (iron)
5. Tipping (using guillotine dehorners or wire)
What vaccine do beef cattle typically receive, how is this different to dairy cattle? What extra vaccine would you give to cattle in Northern Australia?
5 in 1 (dairy cattle often get 7 in 1)
Would give tick fever vacc in N.Aust
Given on neck or behind ear
What is the ratio of bull to cows required in a beef herd?
1:20, 1:40, 1:60 (depending on fitness of bull)
What are some reasons for castrating cows and what are some way to do it?
Reasons: safety, aggression/fighting, less damage to fences
1. Knife: incision on side of scrotum
2. Ring: elastic ring at top of testicles to cut off spermatic cord carrying blood supply to the testicles
3. Emasculator: crushes and cuts the spermatic cord, allowing detachment of testes without fatal blood loss
4. Burdizzo: crushes blood supply to the testes and testes atrophy inside purse
5. Large ring (eg. California bander)
What are some ways we can identify cattle?
NLIS tag, colour, brand, ruminants bolus, ear tattoo, nose rings
What are some temperate breeds of cattle?
Bos Taurus breeds including:
6. Belgian blue
What are some tropical breeds of cattle?
Bos indicus breeds including:
3. Santa gertrudis
5. Belmont red
What is the key driver of total production of beef?
Kg of beef per hectare/100mm
What are the major inputs to a dairy farm?
What are some industry and government bodies relevant to the dairy industry?
Australian dairy industry council
What are the five categories of feed for dairy cattle?
1. Just forage
2. Forage and minimal concentrates
3. Predominantly forage but more concentrates
4. Very little grazing and TMR
What is the average stocking rate of dairy cows in Victoria?
What are the pros and cons of a seasonal production system cff. year round dairy production systems?
Seasonal: make use of available feed, utilise diff prices throughout year and efficient utilisation of labour BUT you may have to cull non-preg cows, carry dry cow over, milk stale cows over dry period and the genetic improvement of the herd is halted.
Year round: year round milk supply BUT prolonged intercalving interval leads to reduced production, reduced numbers of calves, work load spread over whole year
What is involution?
Post calving contraction of uterus and expulsion of fluid and membranes (30 days)
Successful colostrum transfer is dependent on what?
The three q's!
Sale of bobby calves is subject to which laws?
1. At least 4 days old
2. Bright, alert, strong and vigorous
3. Must be fed within 6 hours of sale
4. Dry, shrivelled umbilical cord
5. Transported in vehicles with enclosed fronts
6. Must have NLIS
7. Must observe WHPs
What are achievable targets for 21-day and 6-week in calf rates? What about for:
- 21-day submission rate
- conception rate
- Non-return rate
71% and 92% respectively
Adequate passive transfer is IgG>____ (failure is IgG
Weaning times can be based on...?
Age (6-8 weeks)
What are the recommended target mating weights for jersey and Freisian cattle?
What are some common signs of a cow in heat? (8)
🔹Sniffing other cows
🔹Standing to be mounted
🔹Squirting urine frequently
🔹Turning head to flank
How long does oestrus last in a cow?
1-28 hours (standing heat for 6-12 hours)
What drugs can be used for heat synchronisation in cattle?
1. Prostaglandins (2 doses 11 days apart)
2. Progestagens (device providing endogenous source of progesterone)