Anisocoria +/- Ptosis Flashcards Preview

Ocular Disease 3 - Final > Anisocoria +/- Ptosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anisocoria +/- Ptosis Deck (55)
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1

True or False. When you notice a anisocoria, you cannot have a ptosis?

False. In fact you look for the other as well

2

What muscles are affected by the Central nervous system?

Iris Dilator and Mueller's Muscle

3

What ocular structures are impacted by the parasympathetic system, to lids and pupils?

Levator and iris sphicnter

4

What is most common etiology of a true emergency?

Acute onset

5

True or False. All of CN3 is involved in a true emergency.

True.

Signs:
Anisocoria, Ptosis and diplopia when the lid is elevated.

6

What is usually the description of a headache when someone is entering with anisocoria with ptosis and diplopia?

Worst headache i've ever had

7

What do you look for when someone presents with a severe headache + diplopia?

Anisocoria + Ptosis

8

If a pt. comes in with acute onset of diplopia, what do you look for?

Anisocoria +ptosis + severe headache

9

For an acute onset emergency, how many of the three (diplopia, severe headache and anisocoria +ptosis) do you require to be considered an emergency?

2/3 or 3/3

10

What are the differential diagnosis of an emergency?

1. Aneurysm at the Circle of Willis
2. Rapid increase in size of intracranial mass
3. Rapid rise in intracranial pressure
e.g., ventricular or subarachnoid hemorrhage
4. Brainstem stroke
5. Cavernous sinus thrombosis, hemorrhage

11

What do you do, once you have concluded there is no emergency?

Continue workup.
Look for.
1.Anisocoria without ptosis
2.Anisocoria with ptosis
3. Ptosis alone

12

What is the true neurological test, which Mcnaughty thought was very powerful?

Pupil test

Evaluate:
-Reaction to light
-Reaction to a near stimulus
-Pupil size
-Pupil location - can change laterally
-Pupil shape - post surgery (cataract surgery - surgeon require good pupil dilation to conduct surgery)

13

What is the afferent ocuoloparasympathetic pathway impact the most?

Optic nerve

14

What is the efferent ocuoloparasympathetic pathway impact the most?

Oculomotor nerve

15

When a signal is retrieve, what side of the pretectal nucleus will the information be relayed, when preforming a pupil test?

Ipsilateral side

16

Describe the primary pathway of the oculosympathetic pathway?

1. Hypothalamus --> travels to the center of budge or stellate ganglion

2. Stellate ganglion to Superior cervial ganglion

3. Superior cervical ganglionSuperior orbital function (lid - muller and iris - radial)

17

Post ganglionic or tertiary pathway is based on what specific ganglion?

Superior Cervical Ganglion

18

A photopic loss indicates what type of lesion?

PNS

19

What type of lesion would be demonstrated if there is a Mesopic predominance?

SNS lesion

20

What is the only lesion that has an equal mesopic and photopic dysfunction?

Physologic Anisocoria

21

What region is affected when pupils are more likely to be equal than unequal?

Central parasympathetic

22

What is the best test to conduct when observing pupil dysfunction?

Bruckner test

23

What is the most common type of anisocira without ptosis?

physiological anisocoria

24

When you want to see a long standing physiological anisocoria, what test are you conducting?

Familial album tomography (FAT) - look at photo albums and observe the presence of the pupil size

Note: You can do a cocaine test - negative

25

What is the ocular pathology you are looking for in the case of anisocoria without ptosis?

1.Pharmacological block
Atropine which is used for uveitis, she felt that it would help with red eye and used a red cap bottle

2.The usual suspects
-Iritis - inflammation will affect its ability to function
-Angle closure - iris muscles can become non-functional
-Posterior synechiae
-Trauma

26

You see that anisocoria without ptosis is more prominent in bright light, you then present Pilocarpine2 to 4%, you observe no miosis. What does this mean?

Pharmacologic block

Note: Miosis usually occurs when there is normal functional of the iris

27

What is rule #1 when you see anisocoria?

Don't assume there is a neurological problem until you have ruled out:
1. Physiological
2. Ocular pathology
3. Something directly affecting the muscles

28

What areas are within the orbit that are involved in the postganglionic parasympathetic system within the orbit?

Ciliary Ganglion, Iris sphincter and Iris dilator

29

What are the most common differential diagnosis of anisocoria without ptosis, when related to the postganglioic parasympathetic system?

1.Trauma affecting the ciliary ganglion
2.Adie’s pupil

30

What has to be positive when looking for trauma affecting ciliary ganglion?

Trauma