Ankle/Foot Anatomy Flashcards Preview

Orthopaedic Anatomy > Ankle/Foot Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ankle/Foot Anatomy Deck (114):
1

which parts of the foot are considered 'midfoot'?

navicular

cuboid

3 cuneiforms

2

what is the name of the joint that separates the hindfoot and midfoot?

Chopart

3

what is the name of the joint that separates the midfoot and forefoot?

Lisfranc

4

3 ligaments that arise from distal fibula

ATFL

PTFL

CFL

5

when does the calcaneous ossify?

body at 6mo

tuberosity not until 9 years old!

6

which facet of the calcaneous is most vulnerable to #

posterior

7

where does FHL pass on the plantar surface of the foot?

between medial and lateral tubercles of the talus

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8

which muscle passes through the groove on the plantar side of the cuboid?

peroneus longus

9

when do the distal fibula and tibia fuse?

18-20 years old

10

when do the metatarsals fuse?

birth

11

name 2 accessory ossicles in foot

os trigonum

accessory navicular

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12

what is the 'Mortise'?

the arch formed by the malleoli and the plafond

13

what is the incisura?

the lateral groove in the tibia into which the fibula fits

14

what does syndesmosis mean?

to bind together

15

what are the 4 components of the syndesmosis?

AITFL

PITFL

inferior transverse ligament

interosseous ligament

16

what are the names of the 3 common fragments that can avulse from the syndesmosis?

chaput = anterolateral tibial tubercle

wagstaff = anterior fibula tubercle

volkman = posterolateral tibial tubercle

17

only bone in the foot without muscular tendon attachments

talus

18

5 arteries that supply the talus

artery of tarsal canal

deltoid artery

direct superomedial artery

artery of tarsal sinus

direct posterior artery

19

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perforating peroneal artery

20

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anterior lateral malleolar artery

21

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artery of the tarsal sinus

22

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lateral tarsal artery

23

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medial tarsal artery

24

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artery of tarsal canal

25

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deltoid artery

26

how many articulations does the talus have with the calcaneous?

3

anterior

posterior 

middle

27

what is the sustenaculum tali?

an anteromedial shelf that supports the middle talar articular surface and under which passes the tendon of FHL

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28

where is the sinus tarsi?

lateral to the anterior and middle facets of the calcaneous

it is a soft spot just distal to the fibular tip and an anatomical space that is medially continuous with the tarsal canal

boundaries:

superior - talus

inferior - calcaneous

anterior - talocalcaneonavicular joint

posterior - posterior facet of the subtalar joint

29

what motion occurs at chopart's joint?

abduction/adduction

occuring at 2 joints:

talonavicular

calcaneocuboid

30

what is the consequence of the unique anatomy of the middle cuneiform?

it does not extend as far distally, so the 2nd MT becomes the keystone of the transverse arch of the foot

31

what are the plantar cristae?

the articular surfaces on the plantar 1st MT that articulate with the sesamoids

32

how is the Lisfranc joint held together?

with 3 groups of ligaments:

1) the transverse ligaments that attach adjacent metatarsal bases 2-5 (*nb none between 1-2)

2) longitudinal ligaments that attach MT bases to cuneiforms/cuboid (*nb one for each MT)

3) the oblique ligaments from the 2nd MT to the medial cuneiform. there are 3:

dorsal

plantar

Lisfranc

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33

ligament that connects the metatarsal heads

deep transverse

34

what is a Morton neuroma?

entrapment of an intermetatarsal plantar nerve in the transverse metatarsal ligament

35

primary stabilizer of the MTP joint

plantar plate

36

describe the anatomy of FHB

originates from tendon of tib post

inserts into sesamoids on plantar surface of 1st MTP joint and then continues as the phalangealsesamoid ligament which are also stabilized by medial and lateral metarsosesmoid ligaments

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37

only tendon that isn't always black on MRI

FHL, because of fluid in its sheath

38

where is tibialis posterior tendon most vulnerable?

under medial malleolus

39

what is the knot of Henry?

where the FDL finally crosses the FHL in a tendon sheath communication on the plantar midfoot

40

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Peroneus longus

41

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peroneus brevis

42

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EDL

43

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EHL

44

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tibialis anterior

45

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tibialis posterior

46

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FDL

47

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posterior tibial artery

posterior tibial vein

tibial nerve

48

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FHL

49

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plantaris

50

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achilles

51

what is unique about the achilles tendon?

a couple things:

largest tendon in the body

has a paratenon instead of a sheath - which means fat surrounding the tendon (associated with Kager's fat pad anteriorly)

52

where do the peroneal tendons lie?

together as a common sheath 4cm above the joint as they pass under the lateral malleolus

PB is deep to PL

pass through the fibro-osseous tunnel inferior to fibula

split into individual sheaths just distal to lateral malleolus

53

the primary restraint to lateral instability of the peroneal tendons

the superficial peroneal retinacula

superior - from periosteum of distal fibula to lateral wall of calcaneous

inferior - over the lateral wall of calcaneous

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54

3 ligaments deep to tendons in the fibro-osseous tunnel of the fibula?

PITFL

PTFL

CFL

55

what is the tarsal tunnel?

fibroosseous tunnel created by the posterior medial malleolus, medial wall of the calcaneous and talus and the flexor retinaculum

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56

second most commonly torn tendon of the lateral ankle

CFL

57

which motion tightens ATFL?

plantar flexion

58

which motion tightens CFL?

inversion

59

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AITFL

60

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ATFL

61

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CFL

62

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PTFL

63

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PITFL

64

4 parts of the deltoid ligament

anterior tibiotalar

tibionavicular

tibiocalcaneal

posterior tibiotalar (deep)

65

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posterior tibiotalar ligament

66

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tibiocalcaneal ligament

67

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anterior tibitalar ligament

68

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tibionavicularligament

69

strongest subtalar ligament

interosseous talocalcaneal

(aka cervical ligament)

70

what is the bifurcate ligament?

the calcaneo-cuboid/navicular ligament

 

71

anatomy of the long plantar ligament

from calcaneous to cuboid and 1-5 metatarsals

72

anatomy of the short plantar ligament

from the calcaneous to the cuboid

73

what is the spring ligament

from the susentaculum tali to the navicular

74

frequency of os trigonum

5-15%

75

frequency of accessory navicular

10%

76

what is the os peroneum?

plantar to CC joint

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77

list the intrinsic dorsal muscles of the foot

EDB

EHB

78

list the intrinsic plantar muscles of the foot

1st layer: abductor hallucis, abductor digiti minimi, FDB

2nd layer: quadratus plantae, lumbricals

3rd layer: FHB, FDM, adductor hallicus

4th layer: dorsal interossei, plantar interossei

79

which layer houses the knot of Henry?

the 2nd - this is where FHL and FDL tendons are

80

which tendons run in the 4th layer of the foot?

peroneus longus

posterior tibialis

81

insertion of quadratus plantae

lateral FDL tendon

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82

where does the nerve to ADM get trapped?

fascia of abductor hallucis

83

which foot layer houses the medial and lateral plantar nerves?

2nd

84

which interossei are larger?

dorsal

85

muscles of the first plantar layer

flexor digitorum brevis

abductor hallucis

abductor digiti minimi

86

origin and insertion of plantar lumbicals

from medial FDL tendon to medial PP and EDL tendons

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87

origin and insertion of flexor hallucis brevis

cuboid and lateral cuneiform to PP 1st toe

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88

origin and insertion of adductor hallucis

2-4 MT to 1st PP

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89

origin and insertion of flexor digiti minimi brevis

base of 5 MT head to 5 PP

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90

3 portions of the plantar fascia

central band from calc to flexor tendon sheaths

medial band

lateral band

91

what is the truss and windlass mechanism?

where the plantar fascia pull together to force the arch of the foot rostral

92

9 compartments of the foot

medial - AbdH, FHB, FHL tendon

lateral - ADM, FDM

superficial central - FDB, lumbircals, FDL tendons

deep central - QP, posterior tibial NVB

adductor - AddH

interosseus 1-2 - dorsal only

interosseus 2-3 - both

interosseus 3-4 - both

interosseus 4-5 - both

93

where does the tibial nerve run in the foot?

between 1st and 2nd layers on QP

94

where does the tibial nerve split?

in tarsal tunnel (90%)

95

3 branches of the tibial nerve in the foot

medial calcaneal

medial plantar

lateral plantar

96

what is baxter's nerve?

first branch of the lateral plantar nerve

supplies the quadratus, FDB and ADM

its impingement causes medial heel pain colloquially known as plantar fasciitis

97

1

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saphenous nerve

98

2

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deep peroneal

99

3

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superficial peroneal

100

4

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medial plantar

101

5

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lateral plantar

102

6

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medial calcaneal branch of tibial nerve

103

7

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sural

104

course of the deep peroneal nerve in the foot

travels lateral to and with dorsalis pedis artery

emerges distal to inferior extensor retinaculum

travels lateral to EHL

tracks down first web space

105

4 main branches of the dorsalis pedis

medial tarsal

lateral tarsal

arcuate - forming the dorsal arch

deep plantar - forms the deep arch

106

weakness of hindfoot eversion

superficial peroneal nerve

107

weakness of hindfoot inversion

tibial nerve

108

weakness of great toe extension

deep peroneal

109

weakness of great toe flexion

tibial nerve

110

weakness of ankle plantar flexion

tibial nerve

111

borders of sinus tarsi

superior:talus

inferior: calcaneus

anterior: talocalcaneonavicular joint

posterior: posterior facet of the subtalar joint

112

4 ligaments of the syndesmosis

AITFL

PITFL

inferior transverse ligament

interosseous ligament

113

which facet of the subtalar joint is most often affected in tarsal coalition

middle

114

2 intrinsic muscles of the foot innervated by deep peroneal nerve

EDB

EHB