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Flashcards in Answers to MEMORISE Deck (16)
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Briefly explain one function of the endocrine system (2)

To secrete the hormones which are required to regulate bodily functions.


Why are standard deviation values useful descriptive statistics for the cognitive psychologist (2)

Is useful to inform about the spread of scores
Indicates participant variables


Outline one problem of studying internal mental processes like memory ability by conducting experiments (2)

Direct observation of memory is not possible and must be inferred from the results of the participants
The task given is rarely how normal memory functioning works


What is meant by statistical infrequency as a definition of abnormality (2)

Deciding what is an indication of abnormality how statistically uncommon it is.


How can systematic desensitisation be used to help people overcome phobias (4)

Relaxation - The therapist teaches the patient relaxation techniques. For example, the patient focuses on taking slow deep breathes to decrease anxiety.
Hierarchy Development - Rates the most distressing situation.
Gradual Exposure - Exposed to phobia gradually, ensuring the person is relaxed at each stage.


Outline what psychological research has shown about short term memory according to the multi-store model of memory (4)

Capacity - Chunking items together can reduce the number of separate items, increasing the overall capacity. Miller states that capacity is 7 +/- 2 items (between 5 and 8)
Duration - Is approximately 18 - 30 seconds but it can be extended by verbal rehearsal i.e. information can be maintained in the rehearsal loop.
Coding - Is acoustically encoded. Causes confusion when material sounds the same.


Identify and outline two techniques that may be used in a cognitive interview (4)

Report Everything - The interviewer encourages talking about every detail, because memories are interconnected. The recollection of one item may cue other memories, helping pierce together a clearer picture - from other witnesses.
Change Order - The interviewer may try alternative ways through the timeline of the incident. Our recollections are influenced by schemas, if you recall events backwards, this will prevent your pre-existing schema influencing what you can recall.


Briefly outline and evaluate the authoritarian personality as an explanation of obedience to authority (4)

The authoritarian personality is a result of a child's strict upbringing from their parents, resulting in obedience towards people of a perceived higher authority. Explaining how people are readily able to perceive people


How is information encoded in the multi-store memory model? (2)

Short Term Memory - Acoustic
Long Term Memory - Semantic


Explain the Difference between a phenotype and genotpe (3)

Genotype is the genetic makeup of an individual whilst the phenotype is the physical result of this information. The difference is that one cannot be seen (genotype) and one can be seen (phenotype). For example, having the genetic programming for both blue and brown eyes, but you have brown eyes because it is dominant.,


Diagram of the working memory model (2)

Central Executive - Phonological loop
- Visuo-spatial Sketch Pad
- Episodic Buffer


Explain the term 'introspection' (2)

The process of looking into a person's unconscious thoughts and feelings and applying them to a persons emotional and mental state.


Outline two types of reinforcement suggested by the behaviourist approach (4)

Positive reinforcement is when good behaviour is recorded, thus making it more likely to occour again in the future. Negative reinforcement is the removal of an aversive reward, returning someone back to their 'pre - aversive' state e.g. when an alarm clock blares and you turn it off.


Describe the cognitive approach to psychology (6)

Where psychologists rely on the brain as the central attribute that controls a humans behaviour. It holds the brain to a high regard along with how it processes information, commonly regarding the brain as a computer. It also has the concept of a schema, which is a bank of experiences and information that helps people navigate new situations. It uses scientific methods to look at the brain and how it works, through neuroimaging scans (PET and fMRI) which help psychologists understand how the brain supports different activities.


Explain what is meant by 'operationalization' (3)

Presenting the variables in a form where they can be easily tested. As concepts need to be identified more clearly, if they are going to be tested.


Distinguish between directional and non directional hypothesis (2)

A directional hypothesis draws parallels between the degree of the independent variable and the group of participants whilst a non - directional hypothesis does not draw any differences.