Anterior & Medial Thigh Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Block 4 > Anterior & Medial Thigh > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anterior & Medial Thigh Deck (64):
1

What is the fascia lata?

The deep fascial layer of the muscles in the thigh. It is also a muscle (learn about this later).

2

What are the compartments of the thigh?

4: Anterior, Medial, Posterior, Gluteal/Lateral

3

What fascial structure separates the posterior and anterior compartments of the thigh?

Intermuscular septum

4

What fascial structure separates the medial and anterior compartments of the thigh?

Medial intermuscular septum

5

What fascial structure separates the medial and posterior compartments of the thigh?

Posterior intermuscular septum

6

What are the muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh?

3: Iliopsoas, sartorius, quadraceps femorus

7

What primarily innervates the anterior thigh and what is the single exception?

Everything except the Psoas Major portion of the Iliopsoas muscle is innervated by the Femoral Nerve (L2-L4).

The Iliopsoas is broken up into the Iliacus portion, which is innervated by the Femoral N., and the Psoas major portion, which is innervated by the L1-3 Ventral Rami.

8

Where does the psoas major of iliopsoas muscle originate and insert? What innervates it? Action?

Origin: T12 to L5 Vertebrae

Insertion: Lesser Trochanter of Femur

Innervation: L1-L3 Ventral Rami

Hip Flexion

9

Where does the iliacus of the iliopsoas msucle originate and insert? What is its innervation and main action?

Origin: Iliac Fossa

Insertion: Lesser Trochanter of Femur

Innervation: Femoral N. (L2-L4)

Action: Hip Flexion

10

Name the divisions of the Quadraceps Femorus:

Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Intermedius, Vastus Medialis

11

What innervates the vastus lateralis?

all of the quadraceps muscles are innervated by Femoral N. (L2-L4)

12

What innervates the sartorius muscle?

Femoral N. (L2-L4)

13

What is the most powerful hip flexor?

Iliopsoas muscle

14

A patient complains of pain in from the hip to the the upper anterior thigh. He is an avid body builder who says the pain seems worst after his abdominal workouts.

What muscle group is likely involved and what structure is compressing it?

The iliopsoas muscle is likely being compressed by the inguinal ligament, which forms a hiatus into the thigh that the muscle passes through.

It is being overworked becaue the iliopsoas is the primary flexor of the hip and doing full sit ups with the legs extended results in hip flexion.

15

What ligament makes up the base of the femoral triangle?

Inguinal ligament

A image thumb
16

What makes up the lateral and medial bounderies of the femoral triangle?

Medial- Adductor Longus Muscle

Lateral- Sartorius muscle

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17

What is the contunuation of transversalis fascia from the abdomen that extends 2-3 cm beyond the inguinal ligament and is divided into three components by the septa fascia?

 

What are the three components?

Femoral Sheath 

 

Lateral Compartment

Middle Compartment

Medial Compartment

18

What are the actions of the sartorius muscle?

Sitting indian style:

Hip Flexion

Hip abduction

Lateral Rotation of Femur

Knee Flexion

19

Where do the vastus portions of the quadraceps muscles originate? Insert?

The vastus lateralis, intermedius, and medialis all originate from the femur. 

All portions of the quadraceps muscle insert  on the patella and tibial tuberosity via the quadraceps tendon and the patellar ligament

20

What innervates the iliacus muscle?

Femoral N. (L2-L4)

21

What innervates the psoas major muscle?

L1-L3 Ventral Rami

22

Where does the rectus femoris muscle originate?

It has two heads:

Straight head - Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine (AIIS)

Reflected head - Superior Aspect of the Acetabulum

23

What are the funcitons of the quadraceps muscle?

Knee Extension

Hip Flexion (weak, only rectus femoris)

24

Name the nerves used in hip flexion:

Iliospoas muscle - L1-L3 ventral rami and Femoral N. (L2-L4)

Rectus Femoris - (weak) Femoral N.

Sartorius - Femoral N.

25

Where does the gracilis muscle originate?

Insert?

Orgin: Pubis

Insertion: Middle slip of Pes Anserinus (on medial aspect of tibia)

26

What innervates the gracilis muscle?

Obturator N. (L2-L4)

27

What is the origin of the pectineus muscle?

Insertion?

Orgin: Pubis

Insertion: Pectineal line of femur

28

What are the actions of the gracilis muscle?

Adduction of Femur and Knee flexion

29

What innervates the pectineus muscle?

What are its actions?

Femoral N. (L2-L4)

**sometimes can recieve innervation from branch of Obturator N. 

Adduction, medial rotation, and flexion (weak) of femur

30

Where does the adductor longus muscle originate? Insert?

Origin: Pubis

Insertion: Linea Aspera of Femur

31

What innervates the adductor longus muscle? What are its actions?

Obturator N. (L2-L4)

Adduction, medial rotation, and weak flexion of femur

32

Where does the adductor brevis muscle originate? Insert?

Origin: Pubis

Insertion: Linea Aspera of the Femur

33

What innervates the adductor brevis muscle? What are its actions?

Obturator N. (L2-L4)

Adduction, medial rotation and weak flexion of femur

34

What are the two parts of the adductor magnus muscle? What are their respective actions?

Both are involved in adduction and medial rotation of femur.

Adductor Part - hip flexion

Hamstring Part - hip extension

35

What are the contents of the femoral triangle?

Contains the femoral Nerve, Artery, vein, lymphatics

From Lateral to Medial

NAVeL

**e stands for nothing**

36

Where does the adductor part of the adductor magnus insert? Originate?

Inserts on Linea aspera of femur

Orgin: Pubis/Ischium

37

What innervates the adductor part of the adductor magnus muscle? What are its actions?

Obturator N. (L2-L4)

Adduction, medial rotation and flexion of femur

38

What are the vertebral segments of the nerve that innervates the muscle that inserts on the adductor tubercle of the femur?

What are this muscles actions?

Hamstring part of the adductor magnus muscle is innervated by the Tibial N. (L4-S3) 

It is invovled in adduction, medial rotation and extension of femur

39

Where does the obturator externus muscle originate? Insert?

Origin: Pubis/Ischium (obturator foramen) and obturator membrane

Insertion: Intertrochanteric Fossa of Femur

40

Who has a huge crush on Kyle?

A image thumb
41

What actions of the femur would you expect weakness in with a Tibial N. lesion?

adduction, medial rotation, and extension

Tibial N. innervates hamstring part of the adductor magnus muscle

42

T or F: The adductor muscles (medial rotators) of the upper thigh insert on the anterior aspect of the femur?

Which muscles are these?

False. Even though they insert on the linea aspera, which is on the posterior aspect of the femur, they are medial rotators due to the line of action about the axis of rotation of the head in the acetabulum. 

 

Adductor longus, adductor brevis, and adductor magnus.

43

How does the femoral nerve transverse the femoral triangle?

What are two important branches mentioned in lecture?

It enters deep to the inguinal ligament and lateral to the vessels.

Branches to know are the saphenous and the nerve to the vastus medialis

44

What are the major branches of the femoral artery within the femoral canal?

1. Profunda Femoris branches from the posterior aspect of the femoral artery

2. Medial circumflex femoral artery

3. Lateral Circumflex femoral artery

4. Perforating arteries Usually 4

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45

What muscle forms the adductor hiatus?

The two parts of the adductor magnus muscle.

Adductor and hamstring parts

46

What does the head of the femur articulate with?

The acetabulum of the os coxae

47

What is the lateral border of the adductor canal?

Vastus Medialis Muscle 

48

What is the medial border of the adductor canal?

Adductor longus and adductor magnus 

49

What forms the roof of the adductor canal?

Sartorius muscle

50

What are the contents of the adductor canal?

4 Things 

Femoral Artery

Femoral Vein

Saphenous Nerve

Nerve to the Vastus Medialis 

51

What nerve woul dbe injured from a shallow knife wound on the medial thigh 4 in above the knee?

Cutaneous branch of the obturator nerve

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52

Where does the obturator artery recieve blood from?

From the internal iliac 

53

What are the two major distinctions between the upper and lower limb?

1. The lower limb is designed for support and locomotion and the structures are modified for strength not for grasping. 

2. Lower limb exhibits developmental rotation

Lower limb rotated medially and upper limb rotated laterally

54

What are three specialized structures of teh fasca lata?

Iliotibial Tract- 

Gluteal Aponeurosis- Thickening of fascia between the iliac crest and the superior border of the gluteous maximus 

Saphenous Opening- Slit for the saphenous vein to reach the femoral vein

55

What are the 4 neurovascular gateways to the lower limb?

Beneath the Inguinal Ligament-  This is the passageway for structures arising in the abdomen or pelvis to enter the anterior compartment of the thigh.

Obturator Canal ‐‐This is the passageway for structures arising in the pelvis to enter the medial compartment of the thigh.

Greater Sciatic Foramen ‐‐This is the passageway for structures traveling between the pelvis and the gluteal region.

Lesser Sciatic Foramen ‐‐This is the passageway for structures traveling between the perineum and the gluteal region.

56

What are the direct branches of the internal iliac that supply the lower limb?

3

Superior Gluteal

Inferior Gluteal 

Obturator

57

What is the major source of blood to the lower limb?

Femoral artery —The femoral artery is the direct continuation of the external iliac artery as it passes deep to the inguinal ligament. This is the primary arterial channel to the lower extremity.

58

What vertebral levels contribute to the tibial nerve?

L4-S3

59

What two nerves make up the sciatic nerve? What are their vertebral levels?

Tibial Nerve L4‐S3
Common Fibular Nerve L4‐S2

60

What vertebral levels make up the obturator nerve?

L2-L4

61

Movements of the hip joint 

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62

Movements of the Knee Joint 

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63

Do the superficial and deep venous systems of the leg communicate?

Yes

64