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Describe the Dura

The dura is a dual structure with an inner meningeal layer and an outer periosteal layer (endocranium) which is intimately applied to the inner surface of the cranial bones (serving as a periosteum) and which becomes continuous with the pericranium (periosteum of the skull surface) at the various foraminae (Latin=windows) of the skull.


How are venous sinuses formed?

At certain locations, the two layers separate to form venous sinuses. triangular in coronal section and usually associated with bone, these are made of dura. The layers then rejoin to form one of four partitions which insinuate themselves between subdivisions of the brain.


What is the Falx Cerebri

Falx cerebri (Latin: falx=sickle)--a strong membrane extending down into the longitudinal fissure between the two cerebral hemispheres;


Where is the Falx attached?

attached to the skull bones along the midline of the inner surface of the cranial vault from the crista galli (Latin: cock’s comb) to the internal occipital protuberance;


What is contained in the superior aspect of the falx?
What is contained in the inferior aspect?

superior attachment contains the superior sagittal sinus; free margin contains the inferior sagittal sinus


What is the Tentorum Cerebri?

Tentorium cerebelli (Latin: tentorium=roof)--a transverse shelf of dura separating cerebellum from the occipital poles of the cerebral hemispheres;


Where is the Tent Attached?

Attached laterally and posteriorly to the transverse sinuses; attached anteriorly to the superior border of the petrous (Greek: petros=rock) temporal bone and the posterior clinoid processes; becomes continuous with the falx cerebri along the midline where the two meet at right angles to form the straight sinus; free border extends anteriorly to the anterior clinoid processes


What is the triangular process attached to the inner surface of the occipital bone; projects into the posterior cerebellar notch between the two cerebellar hemispheres

Falx Cerebelli.... Not to be confused with Cerebri they are different.


What is the roof of dura covering the pituitary; this roof is incomplete to allow the stalk of the hypophysis to reach the hypothalamus

Diaphragma sellae (Latin: cover over the saddle)


Where does the Dura get its blood supply from?

dura receives most of its blood supply from the middle meningeal arteries which are branches of the maxillary artery off the external carotid.


Where does the middle meninginal artery run?

These middle meningeals ascend through the foramen spinosum on either side and course outside the periosteal layer of dura forming a groove in the skull; they supply the skull as well as the dura and are frequently injured in skull fractures


What is the sensory innervation to the dura?

sensory innervation to the dura is by branches of the FIFTH cranial nerve, the trigeminal. Each of its 3 divisions gives off a sensory branch to the dura.


What vessels are often injured in skull fractures?

Middle Meningeal arteries


What is the Delicate connective tissue membrane closely applied to the brain. It carries the rich network of blood vessels which supply the nervous tissue. It invests the entire surface of the brain, dipping into the fissures and sulci of the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres.

Pia Mater (Pia + Arachnoid=Leptomeninges)


What is the avascular membrane lying between the dura and pia

Arachnoid Mater


Where is CSF synthesized?

choroid plexus


Where does CSF enter the subarachnoid space?
What are the wide intervals made at the base of the brain by the subarachnoid space?

4th ventricle
Subarachnoid Cysterna


What allows CSF to flow between the third and fourth ventricles

Cerebral aquaduct


How does blood brain from the arachnoid membrane to the superior sagital sinus?

Arachnoid villi clump together to form arachnoid granulations that penetrate the dura to absorb CSF into the superior sagital sinus.


If you have a hemhorrhage between the skull and the dura what space of the skull would this be in?

Epidural or Extra axial hemhorrhage


What lobes of the brain occupy the anterior cranial fossa?

Frontal lobes


What passes through foramen rotundum?

Maxillary Nerve (V2)


What passes through foramen oval?

Mandibular Nerve V3 and Accessory meningeal artery


What passes through foramen spinosum?

Middle meningeal vessels


What passes through foramen Lacrum?

Nothing it is closed to the exterior by cartilage. Although the contents of the jugular foramen pass over the foramen lacrum.


What passes through the superior orbital fissure?

5 Things

CN3 Occulomotor
CN4 Trochlear
V1 Ophthalmic branch of Trigeminal
CN6 Abducens
Ophthalmic vein


What lies in the cribiform plate

CN1 Olfactory Nerve


What passes through the optic canal?

CN2 Optic Nerve
Ophthalmic artery


What passes through the internal acoustic meatus?

CN7 Facial Nerve (Nervous intermedius)
CN8 Vestibulocochlear
Labyrinthine Artery


Jugular Foramin .... Jugular Foramin Fuck-A You Mother Fuck-A

CN9 Glossopharyngeal
CN10 Vagus
CN11 Accessory
Internal Jugular Vein


What passes through the hypoglossal canal?

CN12 Hypoglossal Nerve


What passes through the foramin magnum?

Vertebral arteries and the medulla oblangata becomes continuous with the brainstem


What layer of the dura are the venous sinuses derived from?

Periosteal layer of the dura


How is the majority of the blood drained from the cranial vault?

Venous sinuses.


Which sinus communicates with the diploic and emissary veins of the scalp?

Superior Sagittal Sinus


Which veins drain into the sigmoid sinus?

Mastoid and condyloid emissary veins


Where is the location of the cavernous sinus?

On either side of the sphenoid bone


What veins does the cavernous sinus communicate with?

Ophthalmic veins, Veins of the deep face, Superior and Inferior Petrosal sinus


How is infection spread throughout the cranial cavity?

Through the sinuses.


Who is the mighty US warlord?

Premier Bush