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Flashcards in Antibiotics Deck (23)
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1

Name B-lactam antibiotics

Pencillins - penicillin, flucloxacillin, amoxicillin, piperacillin/tazobactam
Cephalosporins - ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, carbepenems

2

How do B-lactam antibiotics work?

Stop crosslinking of peptidoglycan and cause autolysins to degrade cell wall (bactericidal)

3

What is the coverage of B-lactams?

Gram positive
Some gram -ve

4

Name glycopeptides

Vancomycin
Teicoplanin

5

How do glycopeptides work?

Enter cell and bind to PG precursor molcule so they cannot be crosslinked - weak cell wall results in osmolysis (bactericidal)

6

What is the coverage of glycopeptides?

Gram positive only

7

Name macrolides

Erythromycin,azithromycin, clarythromycin

8

How do macrolides work?

Pass through cell membrane and act on ribosomes to prevent peptide bonds being formed (bacteristatic)

9

Name aminoglycosides

Gentamicin

10

How do aminoglycosides work?

Bind to ribosome causing misreading of mRNA codon and insertion of wrong amino acid onto protein (bactericidal)

11

What are aminoglycosides effective against?

Gram negative aerobic organisms

12

What are macrolides used for?

Infections where bacteria 'hide' from immune system (legionella)
Bacteria without a proper cell wall (mycoplasma, chlamydia)

13

Name tetracyclines

Doxycycline

14

How do tetracyclines work?

Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to ribosomes (bacteristatic)

15

What are tetracyclines used for?

Bacteria without a proper cell wall
Infections in penicillin-allergic patients

16

How does metronidazole work?

Strand breakage of DNA (bactericidal)

17

What does metronidazole cover?

True anaerobes - clostridium, bacteriodes

18

How does trimethoprim work?

Inhibits bacterial folic acid synthesis

19

What does trimethoprim cover?

Gram negatives and some gram positive

20

Name fluoroquinolones

Ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin

21

How do fluoroquinolones work?

Interact with topoisomerases responsible for DNA coiling (bactericidal)

22

What is the coverage of fluoroquinolones?

Broad spectrum

23

What are the 4 Cs? (Broad spectrum antibiotics)

Ciprofloxacin (and levofloxacin)
Cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefixime)
Co-amoxiclav
Clindamycin