Antibiotics August 28, 2017 Flashcards Preview

PHAR 7217 > Antibiotics August 28, 2017 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antibiotics August 28, 2017 Deck (30):
1

nitrofurantoin

Macrodantin, Macrobid

antibacterial

bacterial infection

inhibition of Acetyl Coenzyme A (interferes with metabolism of carbohydrates in bacteria)

diarrhea, fever, chills

2

metronidazole

Flagyl

antibacterial/antiprotozoal

bacterial infection

bind to DNA causing DNA strand breakage and death

seizures, neuropathy

3

sulfamethoxazole with trimethoprim

Bactrim, Septra

antibiotic

bacterial infection

trimethoprim - blocks tetrahydrofolic acid (inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase)
sulfamethoxazole - inhibits dihydrofolic acid by competitive antagonism of para-aminobenzoic acid

diarrhea, rash

4

mupirocin (topical)

Bactroban

antibiotic

bacterial infection

inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis by reversibly binding to bacterial isoleucyl transfer RNA synthetase

burning, stinging, pain

5

amoxicillin trihydrate

Amoxil, Moxatag, Trimox

antibiotic

bacterial infection

inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis via acylation of transpeptidase enzyme

diarrhea, rash

6

amoxicillin with clavulanate potassium

Augmentin (XR)

antibiotic

bacterial infection

amoxicillin - inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis via acylation of transpeptidase enzyme
clavulanate - binds to active sites of betalactamase enzymes (protecting amoxicillin)

diarrhea, rash

7

penicillin V potassium

Veetids, Pen-Vee K, V-Cillin

antibiotic

bacterial infection

inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis via acylation of transpeptidase enzyme

hives, rash

8

clarithromycin

Biaxin (XL)

antibiotic

bacterial infection

binds to 50S ribosome and suppresses protein synthesis

diarrhea

9

azithromycin

Zithromax, Zmax

macrolide antibiotic

bacterial infection

binds to 50S ribosome and suppresses protein synthesis

diarrhea

10

cefuroxime axetil

Ceftin

cephalosporin antibiotic

bacterial infection

inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis via acylation of transpeptidase enzyme

diarrhea, rash, hives, itching

11

cephalexin

Keflex

cephalosporin antibiotic

bacterial infection

inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis via acylation of transpeptidase enzyme

diarrhea, rash, hives, itching

12

cefdinir

Omnicef

cephalosporin antibiotic

bacterial infection

inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis via acylation of transpeptidase enzyme

diarrhea, vaginal moniliasis

13

cefprozil

Cefzil

cephalosporin antibiotic

bacterial infection

inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis via acylation of transpeptidase enzyme

diarrhea, rash

14

ciprofloxacin

Cipro (XR)

fluoroquinolone antibiotic

bacterial infection

inhibits synthesis of bacterial DNA by interfering with enzyme DNA gyrase

diarrhea, sun sensivity, rash

15

levofloxacin

Levaquin

fluoroquinolone antibiotic

bacterial infection

inhibits synthesis of bacterial DNA by interfering with enzyme DNA gyrase

diarrhea, taste perversion, tendinitis and tendon rupture

16

ofloxacin ophthalmic

Ocuflox

fluoroquinolone antibiotic

bacterial infection

inhibits synthesis of bacterial DNA by interfering with enzyme DNA gyrase

eye problems, blurry vision

17

minocycline hydrochloride

Minocin

tetracycline antibiotic

bacterial infection

blocks protein synthesis by competitively binding to 30S ribosome

burning stomach, teeth discoloration, sore tongue

18

doxycycline hyclate

Vibramycin, Doryx

tetracycline antibiotic

bacterial infection

blocks protein synthesis by competitively binding to 30S ribosome

sunlight sensitivity, teeth discoloration, sore tongue

19

clindamycin (oral)

Cleocin

Antibiotic

Infection (Bacterial)

Binds to 50S ribosome and suppresses protein synthesis

severe diarrhea, muscle pain, rash

20

oseltamivir

Tamiflu

Antiviral

Infection (Viral)

Inhibition of influenza virus neuraminidase and alteration of virus particle aggregation and release

Seizures, confusion, abnormal behavior

21

valacyclovir

Valtrex

Antiviral

Infection (Viral)

interferes with HSV DNA polymerase and inhibits viral DNA replication

creatine elevations, rash, hives, topical issues, etc.

22

acyclovir

Zovirax

Antiviral

Infection (Viral)

interferes with HSV DNA polymerase and inhibits viral DNA replication

N/V/H, abdominal pain

23

fluconazole

Diflucan

Antifungal

Infection (Fungal)

Cytochrome P450 sterol (C14 Alpha Demethylation) Inhibitor

abdominal pain, Diarrhea, taste perversion

24

ketoconazole

Nizoral

Antifungal

Infection (Fungal)

Impairs synthesis of ergosterol (fungal membranes), allowing increased permeability and leakage of cellular components

N/V, Severe Irritation

25

nystatin (topical powder/oral suspension)

Nystop

Antifungal

Infection(Fungal)

Antimycotic, Binding to sterols in cell membrane, changing membrane permeability

Topical AE-burning, itching, rash.
Oral AE-Diarrhea, GI Distress

26

terbinafine

Lamisil

Antifungal

Infection(Fungal)

Inhibits squalene epoxidase (involved in sterol synthesis in fungi)

Diarrhea, abdominal pain, dyspepsia

27

emtricitabine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, cobicstat, and elvitegravir

Stribild

antiviral

viral infection

combination activity, interferes with HIV-1 DNA/RT/integrase

lactic acidosis, insomnia, abnormal dreams

28

hydroxychloroquine

Plaquenil

Rheumatoid Arthritis Agent/AntiMalarial

Malaria

Unknown (may raise certain pH)

Visual disturbances, blood dyscrasias

29

clotrimazole with betamethasone

Lotrisone

Topical Anti inflammatory/Anti fungal

Infection(Fungal)/Inflammation

Increase membrane permeability (permeating the chitin of the fungal cell wall).

Stinging, erythema, irritation of the skin

30

chlorhexidine

Peridex , Periogard

Antiplaque Rinse

Mouth Wash, Mouth Cleaning before surgery/apt

Disruption of plasma membrane of bacterial cell

Alteration of taste, mouth irritation, staining