Antibody structure/function (notes/class) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antibody structure/function (notes/class) Deck (117):
1

T/F Abs are effector molecules of B cells but have NO toxic properties and do NOT themselves destroy invading pathogens

True

2

What is the 1st component of the classical complement cascade? Describe it

opsonization

Bc Abs also serve as ligands for receptors on phagocytic cells, they promote uptake and destruction of pathogen by phagocytes via opsonization

3

In some cases binding of Abs to a pathogen prevents binding of pathogen to its host ligand which will prevent infection. What is this action?

neutralization

4

 What are globular proteins produced by B cells and primarily from humoral immune response?

Abs

5

What are the 5 functions of Abs?

  1. bind to protein or carbohydrate antigens
  2. interact with host systems (complement) and cells (macs) to promote clearance of infectious agents
  3. membrane integrated forms serve as main component of BCR
  4. block spread of infectious agents in blood and help prevent re-infection at mucosal surfaces
  5. provide protection from rechallenge by infectious agents

6

All Ab molecules have a common core structure consisting of what?

2 identical light chains

2 identical heavy chains

7

What forms the attachment of the light chain(LC) to heavy chain(HC)? Describe these attachments

Attachments are formed by intrachain disulfide bonds

1 of 2 LC to each HC

HC are attached to each other

 

8

T/F HC and LC are encoded on separate genes

9

Ig domains fold how? What helps with this?

Ig domains fold independently and interchain disulfide bonds help form the domains

10

Which Ig domain is the variable region and the constant region? 

Variable region is at the amino-terminal Ig domain and is highly variable between different Abs

Constant regions are very conserved

11

What domains of all Ab molecules have a similar structure?

Constant (C) domain and variable (V) domain

12

Where do Abs perform their functions? Where do they encounter there that forces them to use a tertiary structure to withstand these?

in extracellular spaces in the presence of infection

encounter variations in pH, [salt], proteolytic enzymes, other destabilizing factors

tertiary sturcture enables them to withstand these factors and maintain functionality

13

Describe the shape and bonds of the C and V domains of the Ig

both C and V domains are reoughly cylindrical shape and formed by 2 adjacent B-sheet structures covalently linked by a disulfide bond

14

Describe how Ig folds are formed

adjacent B-sheets form a Beta barrel motif of proteins and those formed in Ab molecules are called from Ig folds

15

What is the primary difference between the structures of C and V domains?

V domains are larger and have an extra loop of polypeptide chain

flexible loops of V domains form the antigen-binding domains

16

What forms the antigen-binding site of each "arm" of an Ab molecule?

localized regions of both HC and LC V domains

17

Sequence variability is confined to 3 distinct regions. What are they?

  1. hypervariable - HV1, HV2, HV3
  2. complementarity-determining region - CDR1-3

Low variability between hypervariability are 

  1. Framework regions (FR1-4)

18

What happens when the HC and LC are paired in an Ab molecule wrt to the HV regions?

HV regions are brought together creating a single HV site at the tip of each "arm" of the Ab molecule

19

What can the HV site form?

antigen binding site and complementarity determining regions

20

Depending on the sequences that form the antigen binding site, what can it bind to?

21

The region of the antigen that is recognized by the Ab is known as what?

the antigenic determinant or epitope

22

T/F Abs can bind to portions of molecules that vary in shape and physcial properites

True

23

What are the functions of Abs? When are they most effective?

Fxn: bind to microbes and to facilitate their destruction and removal from body

Most effective: combat infection are those that bind to surface exposed/accessible moecules of pathogen

24

The portion of any particular antigen that an Ab binds to is called what?

antigenic determinant or epitope

25

Abs produced in response to an infection usually have a specificity for epitopes composed of what?

either carbohydrates or proteins

26

Complex macromolecules have multiple epitopes that can be bound by a separate Ab molecule called what?

multivalent antigens

27

T/F a multivalent antigen can have a single epitope that is repeated many times 

false, or it can have a number of distinct epitopes

28

Abs that have specificity for chem structures other than carbs or proteins can be produced. These are often involved in allergic rxns and autoimmmune diseases. What are the specific for and what are they not involved in?

Abs specific for DNA are NOT involved in defense against infection but are involved in allergic rxns and autoimmune diseases

29

What forces are needed to bind Abs to antigens?

non covalent forces (electrostatic forces, H bonding, van der Waals forces, hydrophobic interactions)

30

What are the antigen binding regions of Ab molecules typically rich in? What forces are they usually found in?

typically rich in aromatic AA

parcipitate in many van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions

31

The HV or CDR of the V Ig domain of LC and HC come together to form a unique shape. What is found in these regions so what action can occur?

AA side chains that reside in these regions to allow the Ab to bind to spcific epitope

32

The binding stregnth of any Ab to its particular antigenic determinant is known as what?

binding affinity

33

T/F ALL non-covalent protein:protein interactions are reversible

true

34

An Ab that has ____ affinity for an antigen stays bound longer than an Ab that has ____affinity.

High affinity binds longer than Ab with Low affinity

35

Ab can bind to 2 types of antigenic determinants of proteins. What are they and describe them?

  1. continuous epitopes (linear) => formed by linear stretch of AA
  2. discontinous epitopes (non-linear) => formed by AA from different parts of polypeptide brought together in folded protein

36

Ab molecules are subdivided into 5 different isotypes based on HC. What are the isotypes?

Ig A, D, E, G, M

37

The amino terminal ends of both the HC and LC contain what regions of the polypeptide chains?

Variable (V) or hypervariable regions

38

Describe the V and C region of the LC

LC have a single V region and single C region

39

Describe the regions that make up the HC

1 V region

3 C regions for IgG, IgD, IgA

4 C regions for IgM, IgE

40

Which Ig have a hinge region? What AA is present in the hinge region?

IgG, IgD, IgA

rich in proline residues

41

Why is the hinge region important?

it allows flexibility of Ab molecule that enables it to more easily bind to antigenic determinants and/or immune components FcR

42

What are the 2 types of LC?

kappa and lambda

43

The kappa and lambda types of LC are present in which Ab?

present in all 5 isotypes of Ab

only, 1 of these LC types is present in an individual Ab molecule

44

What are the subclasses of IgA? IgG?

IgA1 and IgA2

IgG1-4

45

What Ab can exist as multimeric structures of Ab molecules?

IgM and IgA

46

What is a distinct feature of the multimeric IgA and IgM? What is the function of this feature

the J chain or joining chain that is disulfide linked to the tail pieces which are extensions at the C-terminus region of IgA and IgM HCs

tail pieces stabilize IgA and IgM multimers

47

What is produced by epithelial cells that line the luminal surface of mucosal tissues? What is the function of this?

the secretory component of IgA

it combines with IgA produced locally by lymphocytes and transports IgA through epithelial cells into secretions

48

Which Ig comprises serum Ig and has a half life of 6 days?

IgA

49

IgA occurs as what type of structures?

Where is IgA found?

monomeric, dimeric, trimeric structures

IgA is foundin colostrum/breast milk, intestinal and respiratory secretions, saliva, tears, other secretions

50

Production of IgA requires what?

What occurs in IgA-deficient individuals?

requires T cell help

IgA deficients experience increased incidence of respiratory infections

51

Serum IgA is found in what?

Secretory or exocrine IgA is found in what?

serum IgA found in bodily secretions

secretory IgA have mucosal immune stimulation and required for production of sIgA

52

What is a heavier Ig that is found in low concentration of serum?

IgD

53

What is primarily a membrane Ig? What Ig does it carry out its function with and what is the function?

IgD

IgD serves with IgM as an antigen receptor on early B cell membrane to help initiate Ab responses by activating B cell growth

54

What Ig lasts only a short time and found in low concentration of serum?

IgE

55

IgE is important for protection against what? What is it also responsible for?

protection against parasitic infection

responsible for anaphylactic hypersensitivity

56

How does IgE protect against parasites?

most IgE is bound to Fc receptors on mast cells where it serves as a receptor for allergens and parasite antigens

57

If sufficient antigen binds to IgE on mast cells, what occurs?

  1. mast cells degranulate
  2. release histamine, prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor and cytokines

58

What Ig is most prevalent in adults along with the longest half life?

IgG

59

Which Ig requires T cell help and has a high binding capacity for antigens?

IgG

60

Which Ig can cross the placenta?

IgG

61

What is the principle Ab isotype in memory immune responses?

IgG

62

What are the actions of IgG?

  • fixes complement (requires multiple IgG)
  • stimulates chemotaxis
  • acts as an opsonin that facilitates phagocytosis

63

What is a pentameric molecule that does NOT require T cell help for production? What stabilizes this structure?

IgM

stabilized by a J chain

64

What is the most efficient Ig for fixing or binding to complement?

IgM

65

T/F a single pentmer of IgM can activate the classical complement pathway

true

66

By IgM activating the classical complement pathway, what does this promote?

phagocytosis and bacteriolysis through complement fixing activity

67

T/F IgM cannot cross efficiently into tissue

true due to its large size

68

What Ig is found on the surface of all nairve B cells that serves as a receptor for antigen?

monomeric IgM along with IgD

69

What Ig is important for immunity to polysaccharide antigens?

IgM

70

Ab molecules have 2 major structural regions that mediate the 2 primary fxns of Ab molecules. Name them

  1. variable region/antigen combining sites
  2. stem portion of Ab molecules are the Fc portion

71

Describe the variable region/antigen-combining sites along with the idotype

 regions of Ab which interact with epitope of antigen and idiotype refers to AA sequences w/in variable region of Ab molecule and sequence forms mirror-image of epitope that the Ab recognizes

72

Describe the Fc region

interacts with complemetn components with macs and NK cells to promote clearance of antigen and activation of subsequent immune responses

73

The hinge region is sensitive to proteolytic cleavage. What Ig contain these?

IgG and IgA

74

Describe the type of proteolyic cleavages of the hinge region of IgG and IgA

papain cleavage yields a single Fc fragment and 2 Fab fragments=>each Fab fragment contains a single antigen-binding site

pepsin cleavage produces a Fab2 fragment that contains 2 antigen binding domains and a single pFc fragment

75

The role of Abs in effector mechanisms depends on interaction with what?

host cells and complement proteins

76

Describe how the Fc regions of various isotypes of Ab can be recognized by specialized receptors (Fc receptors) on immune effector cells

  1. Fc portion of IgG1 and IgG3 Ab are recognized by Fc receptors on macs and neutrophils
  2. Fc portion of IgE binds to Fc receptors on mast cells, basophils and activated eosinophils

77

What happens when the Fc portion of IgG1 and IgG3 are recognized?

the cells can bind to and engulf opsonized pathogens

78

What occurs when the Fc portion of IgE binds together?

respond by releasing inflammatory mediators

79

What Ig are involved when the Fc portions of Ab:antigen complexes bind to complement and initiate the complement cascade?

IgG1-3, IgM

80

The Fc portion can facilitate delivery of Ab to sites they would not reach without active transport. What are these sites and what Ig are associated?

IgA => mucous, tears, milk

IgG1-3 => fetal blood circulation 

81

Abs are produced in large quantities by what?

fully differentiated B cells called plasma cells

82

What is the antigen-binding molecule of B cells?

Igs

83

Ab molecules are identical to the Ig component of what?

BCR

84

T/F Each Ab produced by a single B cell has the exact same specificity for antigen

true

85

During clonal selection, each B cell displays many copies of what on its surface?

the same BCR

86

Why are the Abs produced by a single B cell the same?

They are made from the same light chain and same heavy chain

87

Light chains of Abs consist of what type of chains

a single heavy chain and a single light chain

88

Any AA change in the constant region, will have what? is this normal?

It will cause a change in the B barrel region so is not normal

89

Where are the antigen binding sites?

hypervariable sites on both the heavy and light chains

90

What does the binding within the chains of the Ig?

disulfide bonds

91

What is the importance of the Ig domains?

Fc receptor and complement binding sites

92

Which terminus contains the V domain?

N terminus

93

Why are the B barrel sheets of the V domain mostly them same bw all Abs? 

changing the AA sequence in a large way may affect the way the Ab is secreted as well as its binding and structure ability

94

What regions of the Ab give it is antigen specificity?

the loop region that is hypervariable only in the V domain

95

Each monomeric Ab is composed of what?

2 identical light chains and 2 identical heavy chains

96

What is any molecule that is bound by an Ab or TCR? What part of this molecule does the binding?

antigen

antigen determinant or epitope

97

Ab binding is what type? Describe affinity

non covalent and reversible

higher affinity then bound tighter

98

What can Abs bind to?

  • native or denatured proteins or peptides
  • carbohydrates, nucleic acids, small molecules and chemicals
  • soluble or particulate antigens

99

What type of forces are involved in Ab binding?

  • electrostatic forces
  • hydrophobic interactions
  • van der Waals forces
  • H bonding

100

What types of epitopes can Ab bind to? Which involves the tertiary structure? Which will not be recognized if denatured?

linear epitope

discontinuous epitope (must be in tertiary structure and will not be recognized if denatured)

101

T/F pathogens are typically multivalent antigens

true

102

What serves as a bridge bw the acquired and innate immune system?

secreted Abs

103

What are the roles of secreted Abs?

opsonization

  • mark for NK cells for antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicitiy) ADCC
  • activate complement pathway

neutralization 

104

What serves as specific antigen receptors for B cells?

membrane bound Abs

105

What Ig has different hinge regions within its structure?

IgG and its subclasses have variable hinge regions

106

Which Ab isotype protects newborns from common infections?

IgG because it can cross placenta

but also IgA because it is secreted in breast milk

107

Which Ig are most important in neutralization?

IgG and IgA

108

Which Ig are most important for opsonization?

IgG

109

Which is most imporant for sensitization for killing by NK cells?

IgG

110

Which is most important for the sensitization of mast cells?

IgE

111

Describe the level of importance for activation of complement system

IgM > IgG > IgA

112

Which Ab can be transported across the epithelium?

IgA

(rarely IgM)

113

Which Ig is transported across the placenta?

IgG

114

Describe the level of importance for diffusion into extravascular sites

IgG > IgA > IgE > IgM

115

Describe the level of concentration in the serum 

IgG > IgA > IgM > IgD > IgE

116

Describe how B cells can be signaled to produce Ab of a different isotype

  • only constant region of HC is altered
  • differences in constant chains of Ab isotypes allows max. versatility of Ab-mediated immune responses

117

Describe the 2 major structural regions of Abs and their related function

Fc region => binds to complement proteins and Fc receptors

Fab => contains antigen binding sites in the V region