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Flashcards in Antigens and Antibodies Deck (49):
1

Definition of antigen?

-antibody generator

-any molecule capable of binding specifically to antigen receptor on B or T lymphocytes

2

What type of molecule is an antigen?

-usually protein

-can be carb, lipid, or nucleic acid

3

When an antigen is a protein, what deals with it? how?

-T cells

-must be processed and presented by a major histocompatibility complex

-done by antigen presenting cells

4

When an antigen is a carb, lipid, or nucleic acid, what deals with it?

-B cells

-better if conjugated to protein

5

What antigens are better?

bigger and more complex ones

6

Definition of immunogen?

any agent capable of inducing an immune response by T or B lymphocytes

7

Difference between antigens and immunogens?

-all immunogens are antigens, but not all antigens are immunogens

-immunogens actually generate an immune response -antigens can generate a response

8

What 7 factors determine immunogenicity?

1. the chemical nature of the antigen, doesn't have to be linear, T cells only process linear, B cells can do both

2. the antigens size

3. the antigens usual presence in the body (self vs non self)

4. antigen dose, route and timing of administration

5. whether the antigen is easily phagocytosed

6. whether antigen is efficiently presented to T cells on MHC

7. the maturity of the immune system and specific lymphocytes

9

What does immunogenicity depend on?

the immune system as well as the antigen

10

Epitope definition? Linear or nonlinear? how many amino acids long?

-antigenic determinant

-part of an antigen that directly interacts with the antigen receptor on lymphocytes

-linear for T lymphocytes

-conformational or linear for B lymphocytes

-5 to 7 amino acids long for antibody, longer for T cells

11

What happens to proteins that have several epitopes?

they are recognized by different B cells and induce a polyclonal antibody response

12

What happens in a polyclonal response?

several clones of B cells each make different antibodies, all able to bind to the same antigen but at different epitopes- multivalent antigen

13

Epitopes on multivalent antigens?

they may have multiple identical epitopes or multiple different epitopes

14

Cross reactivity of epitopes?

epitopes may be shared by closely related antigens so that antibody made to tetanus toxoid binds to tetanus toxin

15

What are antibodies (immunoglobulins)? How are they made?

-variable, antigen specific proteins made by B cells

secreted when B cells are:

-stimulated by relevant antigen

-get help from T cells

-differentiate into plasma cells

-facilitate class switching

16

What is the structure of immunoglobulin?

Two heavy chains:

-composed of 3-4 globular constant (C) domains (regions)

-one variable (V) domain

-can be one of 5 classes: mew, delta, epsilon, alpha, gamma

 

Two light chains:

-composed of one V and one C domain (region)

-can be either kappa or lambda

17

What are the fragments of immunoglobulins?

Fab -antigen binding portion

 

Fc (crystallizable) -biologic activity

18

What cleaves the fragments of immunoglobulins?

Papain -cleaves into 2 Fab and 1 Fc fragment

 

Pepsin -cleaves into one F(ab)2 and one Fc

19

What is the hinge region of immunoglobulins?

-links Fc and Fab portions of the immunoglobulin molecule

-allows for flexibility

-molecular ball and socket joint

20

What is the variable domain of immunoglobulins? where is it present? function? regions?

-antigen binding

-present in heavy and light chains

-contains highly variable region called hyper variable, also known as complementarity determining regions (CDR)

-contains less variable framework region

21

What is the immunoglobulin superfamily? What are the 6 in the family?

-a family of closely related cell surface and secreted molecules

1. IgG

2. TCR

3. Class I MHC

4. CD4

5. CD28

6. ICAM-1

22

Roles of Immunoglobulin?

-serve as a B cell surface receptor

-serve as a secreted molecule

23

What are the 5 classes of immunoglobulins (Ig)? What makes them different?

1. IgG- has gamma heavy chain constant region

2. IgM- has mew heavy chain constant region

3. IgD- has delta heavy chain

4. IgA- has alpha heavy chain

5. IgE- has epsilon heavy chain

24

What is the secreted form of IgA? Functions? Half life?

-mainly dimer

-sometimes monomer or trimer

-mucosal immunity

-6 days

25

What is the secreted form of IgD? Functions? Half life?

-monomer

-naive B cells antigen receptor

-3 days

26

What is the secreted form of IgE? Functions? Half life?

-monomer

-defense against helminthic parasites, immediate hypersensitivity

-2 days

27

What is the secreted form of IgG? Functions? Half life?

-monomer

-opsonization

-complement activation

-antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity

-neonatal immunity

-feedback inhibition of B cells -23 days

28

What is the secreted form of IgM? Functions? Half life?

-pentamer

-naive B cell antigen receptor (monomeric form)

-5 days

29

What genes make the different classes of immunoglobulins?

all classes are made from the same gene

30

What is the only time we have two classes of immunoglobulins on the same cell surface? why? what determines which one is secreted?

-IgM and IgD

-have not encountered the antigen yet

-whatever antigen attaches to the cell surface, that Ig is secreted

31

What chromosomes are the genes encoding kappa and lambda light chains, as well as, the heavy chains on?

-kappa light: chromosome 2

-lambda light: chromosome 22

-heavy chain (all): chromosome 14

32

What are the encoded sections of the heavy chain (V) region gene?

V: variable

D: diversity

J: joining

33

What are the encoded sections for the light chain (V) region gene?

V: variable

J: joining

34

What is the structure of IgA dimer?

-dimerized via J chain

-secretory component

35

Structure of IgM pentamer?

pentamerized via J chain

36

What are 7 biologic properties of IgG?

1. Opsonization

2. Agglutination and formation of precipitates

3. passage through placenta

4. activation of complement via classical path

5. neutralization of toxin

6. immobilization of bacteria

7. neutralization of viruses

37

Opsonization process in IgG?

-binds epitopes on microorganisms via Fab

-binding of phagocytic cells via Fc receptor

38

Agglutination and formation of precipitates in IgG?

-particulate antigens (bacteria) can agglutinate with IgG

-soluble multivalent antigens can precipitate

-enhances phagocytosis

39

What passes through placenta to fetus (IgG)?

-transfer of immunity from mother to fetus

-only Ig that passes mother to child adds protection at birth

40

Activation of complement in IgG?

-results in lysis of cell bearing antigen

-certain complement components act as opsonins and direct phagocytes to antigen

-certain complement components are chemotactic (pro inflammatory)

41

Immobilization of bacteria in IgG?

IgG antibodies to cilia of flagella cause clumping

42

Neutralization of viruses in IgG?

antibodies to viral coat antigens preven viral attachment

43

Biologic properties of IgA?

-tears, saliva, colostrum, sweat, mucus

-prominent role in mucosal immunity

-bacteriocidal activity

-antiviral activity

44

Biologic properties of IgM?

-agglutination

-activation of complement- more efficient than IgG because of IgM pentameric structure

-isohemagglutinin- naturally occurring antibodies against the ABO blood group antigens

45

What is the strength of binding (avidity) between IgG and IgM with complement?

IgM very strong due to pentameric structure

46

Biologic property of IgD?

B cell maturation

47

Biologic properties of IgE?

-reaginic antibody (allergy)

-immunity against parasitic infection

48

What are the multiple sources of therapeutic agents as antibodies?

-exogenous (mouse)

-chimeric (mouse variable domains + human constant domains)

-humanized (mouse CDR + human)

-human (made in mice)

49

3 examples of therapeutic agents as antibodies? What does it treat? Target?

1. Rituximab (chimeric)- treats B cell malignancies -target: CD20 B cell surface marker

2. Omalizumab (humanized)- treats severe cases of allergy -target: IgE

3. Adalimumab (human)- treats rheumatoid arthritis -target: TNF-alpha