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Flashcards in Antiparasitics Deck (30):
1

For nematode (roundworm) infections; selective damage to cytoplasmic microtubles, immobilizes and kills parasite; active for many intestinal roundworms, kills some ova; low systemic bioavailability

Mebendazole

2

For nematode (roundworm) infections; same mechanism as Mebendazole except liver quickly converts it to albendazole sulfoxide which is an active metabolite with good systemic distribution; used for neurocysticercosis due to taenia solum and cutaneous larval migrans

Albendazole

3

What are some side effects of Albendazole?

elevated hepatic enzymes
abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, headache

4

For nematode (roundworm) infections; in hookworms it affects energy metabolism via inhibition of mitochondrial fumarate reductase; in Strongyloides it inhibits assembly of parasitic microtubles; used for Strongyloides, cutaneous larval migrans, alternate agent for other roundworm infections; administration topical

Thiabendazole

5

For nematode (roundworm) infections; depolarizing neuromuscular blocker, causing spastic paralysis of worm; used for hookworm, pinworm and roundworm; NOT effective against Trichuris

Pyrantel pamoate

6

What is a side effect of Thibendazole? Of Pyrantel Pamoate?

Thibendazole: N/V, dizziness
Pyrantel Pamoate: GI symptoms

7

Drug for Fluke infection; increases cell membrane permeability to calcium, resulting in marked muscle contraction; drug of choice for all Schistosoma, good activity against many cestodes; SE: abdominal discomfort, nausea

Praziquantel

8

Drug for cestode infection; for Taenia solium will prevent neurocysticercosi; good activity against many cestodes

Praziquantel

9

Drug for cestode infection; treats neurocysticercosis

Albendazole

10

Drug for cestode infection; good activity against many cestodes

Paromomycin Sulfate

11

Blood schizonticide; selectively toxic to parasite because parasitized erythrocytes concentrate the drug

Chloroquine

12

What is the mechanism of Chloroquine?

inhibits heme polymerization

13

Uses of Chloroquine

Prevent attacks of all 4 species of malaria
Eradicate P. malariae and chloroquine-sensitive P. falciparum

14

Main SE of Chloroquine

Visual impairment

15

Blood schizonticide, used for chloroquine-resistant and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum;
Used as prophylaxis in areas where organisms are resistant to chloroquine

Mefloquine

16

What are some side effects of Mefloquine?

Psychiatric effects: paranoia, depression, anxiety
Vestibular effects: dizziness, vertigo

17

In which individuals is Mefloquine contraindicated?

those with epilepsy or psychiatric disorder

18

Two drugs that block pyrimidine synthesis, blood schizonticides; Used to treat chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum

Atovaquone + Proguanil

19

Selectively inhibits malarial mitochondrial electron transport; ultimate effect is disruption of pyrimidine synthesis

Atovaquone

20

Prodrug; inhibits malarial dihydrofolate reductase; ultimately pyrimidine synthesis

Proguanil

21

Blood schizonticide against all four malarial parasites; agents of choose for severe acute attacks; treatment of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum

Quinine

22

Decreases malarial protein synthesis and depress dihydroorotate dehydrogenase activity, thereby interfering with pyrimidine synthesis; for multi drug-resistant P. falciparum

Doxycycline

23

Radical cure or terminal prophylaxis of P. vivax and P. ovale because it will kill dormant liver schizonts; should be use in conjunction with blood schizonticide; used in combo with clindamycine to treat Pneumocystis jiroveci (carnii) pneumonia in AIDS patients

Primaquine

24

Main SE of Primaquine

hemolytic reactions in those with G6PD deficiency

25

Tissue amebicide for mild to severe symptomatic infections of E. histolytica

Metronidazole

26

Aminoglycoside-like, inhibiting protein synthesis; luminal amebicide; SE: diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain

Paramomycin Sulfate

27

Luminal amebicide; in combination with metronidazole for mild to sever infections of E. histolytica; SE: diarrhea and other GI symptoms; Contraindicated in those with hypersensitivity to iodine-containing preparations

Iodoquinol

28

Drug of choice for Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis

Metronidazole

29

Selective inhibitor of protozoal mitochondrial electron transport; ultimate effect is disruption of protozoal pyrimidine synthesis; alternate prophylaxis or treatment for mild/moderate Pneumocystic jiroveci (carnii) in AIDS patients intolerant of TMP/SMX; active against Toxoplasma gondii

Atovaquone

30

Inhibits pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase; used for Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum

Nitazoxanide