Flashcards in Anxiety and Obsessive Compulsive Disorders Deck (28):
What 3 factors make anxiety pathological?
1. intensity [panic attacks]
2. duration [chronic anxiety]
3. inappropriate for the situation [out of proportion to the threat, ex. phobias]
What psychological symptoms are associated with anxiety?
What cognitive symptoms?
fear, worry, concern, apprehension, shame, doubt
impaired attn, impaired learning
What are the 2 behavioral theories of anxiety?
1. cognitive distortion - anxious person overestimates the threat or underestimates their ability to deal with the threat
2. conditioned response - ex. person with fractured legs is scared to stand, but physical therapist supports them as they stand. The patient gets anxious when the therapist 1asks her to stand on her own. The next day, she is anxious at the site of the therapist
What is the biological theory of anxiety based on?
What are the DSM5 primary anxiety disorders?
1. separation anxiety disorder [child psych]
2. selective mutism [child psych]
3. panic disorder
5. social anxiety disorder
6. specific phobia
What medical conditions are associated with anxiety disorder? 
1. hyper or hypothyroidism
3. B12 deficiency
6. post-encephalitic complications
What drugs of abuse are associated with secondary anxiety disorders?
Withdraw of what drug of abuse can cause it?
4. amyl nitrite
5. alcohol withdraw
What prescribed medications are associated with secondary anxiety disorder?
Withdraw of what prescribed med can also cause it?
4. withdraw of barbituates and benzodiazepines
What OTC or herbals cause secondary anxiety?
What are the 4 main criteria of panic disorders?
1. RECURRENT and UNEXPECTED panic attacks
2. attacks --> concern/worry about implications and complications
3. concern/worry--> change in behavior to avoid attacks
4. anticipatory anxiety about when the next attack will occur --> avoidance of certain people/places/things
A patients says that they have abrubtly starting attacks that last about 10-20 minutes where they have chest pain, palpitations, SOB, feeling of choking/nausea, sweating, chills, shakes, dizziness.
They feel like they are going crazy and losing control and like they might die. They don't feel that they are real and that the surroundings become unfamiliar/unreal.
These attacks are unexpected.
What does this person have?
Panic attack episodes
What is a phobia characterized by?
Irrational fear of an object or situation which leads to:
1. avoidance of the object/situation
2. anticipation of object/situation
3. endurance of the situation with high degree of distress [which may precipitate a panic attack]
*the patient recognizes that their fear is excessive but it feels out of their control
What is agorophobia?
Give a few examples.
fear of places or situations in which escape might be difficult or embarrassing.
The person will avoid certain situations or endure them with marked distress.
1. going across a bridge
2. standing in line
3. leaving the house alone
4. public transit
What is social anxiety disorder?
fear of one or more social situations in which the person might feel:
Which leads to:
-endurance with high degrees of distress
*patients recognize that their fear is excessive
What are examples of feared situations for someone with social anxiety disorder?
1. writing while someone watches
2. calling to make reservations
3. looking a stranger in the eye
4. talking in group discussions
5. sitting in a waiting room
Specifier of "performance only" when fear is restricted to speaking or performing in public
What is a specific phobia?
Fear of a specific object or situation that leads to:
-avoidance, anticipation, endurance with high degree of distress
*patient recognizes fear as excessive
What criteria make something generalized anxiety disorder?
Chronic, excessive worry that causes impairment/distress and lasts for at least 6 months.
It is CONSTANT, not episodic.
restless, irritable, muscle tension, fatigue, decreased concentration, insomnia
What is standard treatment for a specific phobia?
Exposure therapy [systematic desensitization]
1. The patient makes a list of hierarchy of fear-inducing situations ranked from least to most feared.
2. start with least feared and with the assistance of a therapist use relaxation technique until they can tolerate this situation w/o anxiety.
3. move to the next fear on the list
What psychotherapy treatment is used for GAD?
1. cognitive therapy to address the distortion
2. behavioral therapy such as relaxation and biofeedback
3. supportive therapy for reassurance/comfort
What pharmacological treatments are used for GAD?
2. anxiolytic antidepressants
3. buspirone [this is the only indication for its use. do NOT use with panic attacks
What criteria classify a disorder as OCD?
1. obsessions- recurrent thought that leads to anxiety
2. compulsions - repetitive behaviors to decrease anxiety created by the obsessions
-obsession with contamination-->compulsion hand washing
-obsession doubt-->compulsion checking/hoarding
-obsession symmetry--> compulsive straightening
What medication categories are used to treat OCD?
[Medications may take 2-3 months for benefit]
2. clomipramine [serotonergic TCA]
What psychotherapies are most commonly used to treat panic disorders and OCD?
A. CBT with emphasis on behavioral techniques
1. exposure and response prevention = make patient 1touch doorknobs and then don't allow them to wash their hands.
- flooding = exposure in vivo
- implosion = exposure via mental imagery
B. Psychosurgery - lesion to the proposed hyperactive neural circuit
What is Body Dysmorphic Disorder?
When the patient has preoccupation with having a physical deformity that is so significant that it can be considered obsession or delusion.
There is NO deformity or a minor blemish.
Is anorexia nervosa considered a body dysmorphic disorder?
According to DSM5, no.
Describe the onset and progession of body dysmorphic disorder. What doctors do these people tend to see first?
It is insidious and gradually worsening.
They see derm and plastics first but NO medical interventions should be done as this will make things worse
What substances can lead to OCD?
1. amphetamines [Meth]
obsession, compulsion, skin picking, hair pulling, repetitive behaviors