Give (6) physiological effects of anxiety
Palpatations of the heart
Increased muscular tension
Which part of the brain is most responsible for mediating anxiety and fear responses?
Give (5) physiological consequences of high cortisol levels
Raise blood pressure
Raise heart rate
Increase oxygen consumption
Reduce learning and memory (interferes with connections between neurons)
Disrupt immune response
Give (5) anxiety disorders
List some symptoms of a panic attack
- shortness of breath
- chest pain
- fear of loss of control
- fear of dying
- hot or cold flashes
Which anxiety disorder is characterized by recurrent obtrusive thoughts, feelings, or sensations that cause severe distress (may be relieved by repetitive actions - i.e. compulsions)?
What subset of OCD is characterized by preoccupation with a minor or imagined defect in appearance?
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Body dysmorphic disorder
Which anxiety disorder is characterized by proccupation with embarrassment in social situations?
Social anxiety disorder
How long must uncontrollable anxiety last in order to be classified as General Anxiety Disorder (GAD)?
Occurring more days than not
What disorder is this?
Symptoms of anxiety lasting less than six months, and are directly linked to an identifiable psychological stressor (such as divorce, illness, etc),
What is Panic Disorder?
Presence of recurring panic attacks and at least 4 of the following (mnemonic: PANICS):
- Palpitations and paresthesias
- Abdominal distress
- Intense fear of dying or losing control
- Chest pain, chills, choking, disConnectedness
- Sweating, shaking, shortness of breath
What is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)?
Compare to Acute Stress Disorder
- Anxiety relating to re-experiencing of a traumatic event
- May involve nightmares, flashbacks, intense fear/helplessness/horror
- Avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma
- Lasting >1 month
Acute Stress Disorder: above symptoms lasting 3 days to 1 month (i.e. shorter duration)
Which drug is most indicated for immediate pharmacotherapeutic relief of anxiety?
What practice might you try a few times first before resorting to drugs?