Aortic Valve Disease Flashcards Preview

Cardiovascular Physiology 2 > Aortic Valve Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Aortic Valve Disease Deck (33):
1

what is the classic triad of symptoms for aortic stenosis?

angina
dyspnea
syncope

2

what is the most common form of aortic stenosis?

valvular

3

what is the normal aortic valve area?

3-4 cm squared

4

at what valve area is aortic stenosis defined as critical?

< 0.7 cm squared

5

what ventricular problem does aortic stenosis lead to?

increased wall stress and LVH

6

what are the survival rates for patients with angina, syncope and heart failure with AS?

angina is 5 years
syncope is 3 years
HF is 2 years

7

does intensity of AS murmur correlate with severity?

no

8

at what valve area is aortic stenosis considered mild?

> 1.5 cm squared

9

at what valve area is aortic stenosis considered moderate?

1-1.5 cm squared

10

at what valve area is aortic stenosis considered severe?

< 1 cm squred

11

what is pulsus parvus et tardus?

delayed and diminished carotid pulse from aortic stenosis

12

is medical therapy effective for severe symptomatic AS?

no

13

what are the goals for medical treatment in a patient with asymptomatic AS?

prevent CAD
maintain sinus rhythm
good BP control

14

what patient population is a percutaneous aortic balloon valvuloplasty good for?

pediatrics with noncalcific AS, it normally lasts 10 years

in adults, restenosis often occurs within 6 months

15

what does TAVR stand for?

transcatheter aortic valve replacement

16

what is the most common cause of aortic stenosis?

age related calcification

17

what is the treatment of choice for a patient with symptomatic aortic stenosis?

aortic valve replacement

18

what is the classic murmur for aortic regurgitation?

soft blowing decrescendo murmur at LUSB

19

what treatment is absolutely contraindicated in aortic regurgitation?

intra-aortic balloon pump

20

while waiting for surgery, what two treatments can be done for a patient with aortic regurgitation?

inotropic and afterload reduction

21

if a patient has chest pain with aortic regurgitation, what should you think of

aortic dissection

22

what are two causes of chronic aortic regurgitation?

rheumatic heart disease

congenital bicuspid aortic valve

23

does aortic regurgitation cause volume, or pressure overload?

volume overload

24

what is the best determinant of postoperative left ventricular function?

left ventricular end systolic dimension (LVESD)

25

what LVESD predicts poor prognosis postoperatively?

> 55 mm

26

what is the main physical sign of aortic regurgitation?

increased pulse pressure

27

what is DeMusset's sign?

head bob with each heartbeat

28

what is Traube's sign?

pistol shot sound heard over femoral arteries

29

what is Muller's sign?

systolic pulsation of the uvula

30

what is Quincke's sign?

capillary pulsations visible in luluna

31

what is Hill's sign?

popliteal cuff systolic pressure > brachial cuff systolic pressure more than 60 mmHg

32

when listening to a murmur from AR, what determines the severity of the regurg?

duration of the murmur

33

in what patient populations would you use a bioprosthetic valve?

elderly

females of child-bearing age