Flashcards in APGOV.Ch.12.David.Alvarez Deck (53):
501 (c) group
Nonprofit, tax-exempt groups organized under section 501(c) of the Internal Revenue Code that can engage in varying amounts of political activity, depending on the type of group
527 political committees
a type of U.S. tax-exempt organization organized under Section 527 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code
the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017.
A self-described democratic socialist, Sanders is an independent senator from Vermont who has served in government since 1981.
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act
a United States federal law that amended the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974, which regulates the financing of political campaigns.
Political consulting is a form of consulting that consists primarily of advising and assisting political campaigns.
a paid or volunteer individual whose role is to coordinate a political campaign's operations such as fundraising, advertising, polling, getting out the vote, and other activities supporting the effort, directly.
Citizens United v. FEC
a landmark U.S. constitutional law, campaign finance, and corporate law case dealing with regulation of political campaign spending by organizations.
A type of direct primary limited to registered party members, who must declare their party affiliation in order to vote.
supervise public relations staff, create communication strategies, and may serve as the key spokesperson and media contact for the organization.
Ad that compares the records and proposals of the candidates, with a bias toward the sponso
conventional political participation
voting, volunteering for a political campaign, making a campaign donation, belonging to activist groups, and serving in public office.
In primary elections in the United States, crossover voting refers to a behavior in which voters cast ballots for a party with which they are not traditionally affiliated.
Donald J. Trump
45th and current president of the United States.
one who casts an electoral vote for a candidate
all the people in a country or area who are entitled to vote in an election.
a body of people representing the states of the US, who formally cast votes for the election of the president and vice president.
Federal Election Campaign Act
the primary United States federal law regulating political campaign spending and fundraising.
Federal Election Commission
an independent agency created in 1975 by the U.S. Congress to regulate election campaign finance in the United States
The campaign professional who directs fundraising, campaign spending, and compliance with campaign-finance laws and reporting requirements
a decision to move a primary date to the beginning (“front”) of the presidential nomination season
a regular election of candidates for office, as opposed to a primary election.
engage in efforts intended to encourage people to vote in an election.
Help America Vote Act
a federal program that reformed aspects of the United States election system
Hillary R. Clinton
an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker.
existing holder of a political office
an expenditure for a communication that: Expressly advocates the election or defeat of a clearly identified federal candidate; and. Is not coordinated with a candidate, candidate's committee, party committee or their agents
a process that enables citizens to bypass their state legislature by placing proposed statutes and, in some states, constitutional amendments on the ballot.
Advertising that attempts to counteract and anticipated attack from the opposition before the attack is launched.
the authority granted by a constituency to act as its representative
funds that are set to be paid in equal amount to funds available from other sources
McCutcheon v. FEC
a Supreme Court case in which a narrow 5-4 majority struck down the limit on the total amount that one wealthy donor is permitted to contribute to all federal candidates, parties, and political action committees (PACs) combined.
a type of election where the people can elect their representatives and other subnational officeholders
Attack ads focus exclusively on the negative aspects of the opponent.
a primary election that does not require voters to be affiliated with a political party in order to vote for partisan candidates.
political action committees
A popular term for a political committee organized for the purpose of raising and spending money to elect and defeat candidates.
one that conducts a poll or compiles data obtained by a poll.
the use of an advertising campaign through the media to influence a political debate, and ultimately, voters
for a popular political party leader to attract votes for other candidates of the same party in an election
a senior advisor who provides advice on how to deal with the news media and, using news management techniques, helps his or her employer to maintain a positive public image and avoid negative media coverage.
the process by which voters, either the general public (open primary) or members of a political party (closed primary), can indicate their preference for a candidate in an upcoming general election or by-election, thus narrowing the field of candidates.
a voter's evaluation of a candidate based on what he or she pledges to do about an issue if elected.
refers to the funds of every political division of a state wherein taxes are levied for public purposes.
The act of reapportioning or the state of being reapportioned
a procedure by which, in certain polities, voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote before that official's term has ended.
a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposa
a voter's evaluation of the performance of the party in power
a second primary election held in some states to decide which of the two highest candidates for an office in the first primary will be awarded the party nomination.
a modern breed of a political-action committee that's allowed to raise and spend unlimited amounts of money from corporations, unions, individuals, and associations to influence the outcome of state and federal elections.
the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election.
A political leader of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries; one of the Founding Fathers; the leader of the Democratic-Republican party.
unconventional political participation
Relatively uncommon political behavior that challenges or defies established institutions and dominant norms