APGOV.Ch.12.David.Alvarez Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in APGOV.Ch.12.David.Alvarez Deck (53):
1

501 (c) group

Nonprofit, tax-exempt groups organized under section 501(c) of the Internal Revenue Code that can engage in varying amounts of political activity, depending on the type of group

2

527 political committees

a type of U.S. tax-exempt organization organized under Section 527 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code

3

Barack Obama

the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017.

4

Bernie Sanders

A self-described democratic socialist, Sanders is an independent senator from Vermont who has served in government since 1981.

5

Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act

a United States federal law that amended the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974, which regulates the financing of political campaigns.

6

campaign consultant

Political consulting is a form of consulting that consists primarily of advising and assisting political campaigns.

7

campaign manager

a paid or volunteer individual whose role is to coordinate a political campaign's operations such as fundraising, advertising, polling, getting out the vote, and other activities supporting the effort, directly.

8

Citizens United v. FEC

a landmark U.S. constitutional law, campaign finance, and corporate law case dealing with regulation of political campaign spending by organizations.

9

closed primary

A type of direct primary limited to registered party members, who must declare their party affiliation in order to vote.

10

communications director

supervise public relations staff, create communication strategies, and may serve as the key spokesperson and media contact for the organization.

11

Contrast ad

Ad that compares the records and proposals of the candidates, with a bias toward the sponso

12

conventional political participation

voting, volunteering for a political campaign, making a campaign donation, belonging to activist groups, and serving in public office.

13

crossover voting

In primary elections in the United States, crossover voting refers to a behavior in which voters cast ballots for a party with which they are not traditionally affiliated.

14

Donald J. Trump

45th and current president of the United States.

15

elector

one who casts an electoral vote for a candidate

16

electorate

all the people in a country or area who are entitled to vote in an election.

17

Electorate college

a body of people representing the states of the US, who formally cast votes for the election of the president and vice president.

18

Federal Election Campaign Act

the primary United States federal law regulating political campaign spending and fundraising.

19

Federal Election Commission

an independent agency created in 1975 by the U.S. Congress to regulate election campaign finance in the United States

20

finance chair

The campaign professional who directs fundraising, campaign spending, and compliance with campaign-finance laws and reporting requirements

21

front-loading

a decision to move a primary date to the beginning (“front”) of the presidential nomination season

22

general elections

a regular election of candidates for office, as opposed to a primary election.

23

get-out-the-vote

engage in efforts intended to encourage people to vote in an election.

24

Help America Vote Act

a federal program that reformed aspects of the United States election system

25

Hillary R. Clinton

an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker.

26

incumbency

existing holder of a political office

27

independent expenditures

an expenditure for a communication that: Expressly advocates the election or defeat of a clearly identified federal candidate; and. Is not coordinated with a candidate, candidate's committee, party committee or their agents

28

initiative

a process that enables citizens to bypass their state legislature by placing proposed statutes and, in some states, constitutional amendments on the ballot.

29

inoculation ad

Advertising that attempts to counteract and anticipated attack from the opposition before the attack is launched.

30

mandate

the authority granted by a constituency to act as its representative

31

matching funds

funds that are set to be paid in equal amount to funds available from other sources

32

McCutcheon v. FEC

a Supreme Court case in which a narrow 5-4 majority struck down the limit on the total amount that one wealthy donor is permitted to contribute to all federal candidates, parties, and political action committees (PACs) combined.

33

mid-term election

a type of election where the people can elect their representatives and other subnational officeholders

34

Negative ad

Attack ads focus exclusively on the negative aspects of the opponent.

35

open primary

a primary election that does not require voters to be affiliated with a political party in order to vote for partisan candidates.

36

political action committees

A popular term for a political committee organized for the purpose of raising and spending money to elect and defeat candidates.

37

Pollster

one that conducts a poll or compiles data obtained by a poll.

38

Positive ad

the use of an advertising campaign through the media to influence a political debate, and ultimately, voters

39

presidential coattails

for a popular political party leader to attract votes for other candidates of the same party in an election

40

press secretary

a senior advisor who provides advice on how to deal with the news media and, using news management techniques, helps his or her employer to maintain a positive public image and avoid negative media coverage.

41

primary election

the process by which voters, either the general public (open primary) or members of a political party (closed primary), can indicate their preference for a candidate in an upcoming general election or by-election, thus narrowing the field of candidates.

42

prospective judgement

a voter's evaluation of a candidate based on what he or she pledges to do about an issue if elected.

43

public funds

refers to the funds of every political division of a state wherein taxes are levied for public purposes.

44

reapportionment

The act of reapportioning or the state of being reapportioned

45

recall

a procedure by which, in certain polities, voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote before that official's term has ended.

46

referendum

a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposa

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retrospective judgment

a voter's evaluation of the performance of the party in power

48

runoff primary

a second primary election held in some states to decide which of the two highest candidates for an office in the first primary will be awarded the party nomination.

49

super PAC

a modern breed of a political-action committee that's allowed to raise and spend unlimited amounts of money from corporations, unions, individuals, and associations to influence the outcome of state and federal elections.

50

turnout

the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election.

51

Thomas Jefferson

A political leader of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries; one of the Founding Fathers; the leader of the Democratic-Republican party.

52

unconventional political participation

Relatively uncommon political behavior that challenges or defies established institutions and dominant norms

53

voter canvass

the systematic initiation of direct contact with individuals, commonly used during political campaigns.