Apoptosis Flashcards Preview

Molecular and Cellular Biology Lab > Apoptosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Apoptosis Deck (16)
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1

Cell Cycle Phases
Interphase
G1

First gap phase
Cells grow in size, synthesize RNA and proteins, enter the cell cycle by reaching a point in G1 known as START, after that the cells are committed to cell division

2

Cell Cycle Phases
Interphase
S Phase

Active Replication of DNA

3

Cell Cycle Phases
Interphase
G2 Phase

Rapid cell growth, protein synthesis, getting ready for cell division. (Not necessary for entering M phase)

4

Cell Cycle Phases
M Phase

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis

5

Prophase

-Nuclear envelope retracts into ER
-Golgi membranes break down into vesicles
-Kinetochore assembles at each centromere
-Mitotic spindle attaches to each chromosome's kinetochore
-Chromosomes condense

6

Metaphase

-Chromosomes align on the equator
-Chromosomes most condensed

7

Anaphase

-Sister chromatids separate

8

Telophase

-Mitotic spindle disassembles
-Chromosomes decondense
-Nuclear Envelope Re-forms

9

Cytokinesis

Physical division of cytoplasm

10

Checkpoints of cell cycle

-G1/S phase boundary
-S phase
-G2/M phase boundary

11

Apoptosis

Programmed cell death.
An organized process that signals cells to self destruct for cell renewal or to control aberrant cell growth. Controls the orderly death of damaged cells

12

Causes of apoptosis

Inducers:
-Growth factor withdrawal
-Ionizing radiation
-CA2+ influx
-Tumor necrosis factor
-Viral infection
-Glucocorticoids

13

Apoptosis Regulation

Intrinsic pathway: activated by developmental cues, severe cell stress (DNA damage)

Extrinsic pathway: activated by pro-apoptotic ligand binding to key functional pro-apoptotic receptor

14

Propidium Iodide use to study apoptosis

Red fluorescent dye
-Nucleic acid binding dye
-Impermeant to live
-Shows dead cells in red

15

Annexin V use to study apoptosis

-human anticoagulant
-high affinity for PS
-can be labeled with fluorophore or biotin
-Can be detected in apoptotic cells by binding to PS exposed on the outer leaflet

16

Explain which cells are dead or alive on a picture

-Apoptotic cells: Green fluorescence (Annexin V + AlexaFluor)
-Dead cells: Red and Green (propidium iodide)
-Live cells: little or no fluorescence