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Flashcards in Apoptosis Deck (30):
1

IN GENERAL apoptosis is...

Programmed cell death

2

What two aspects are a part of apoptosis?

-physiological
-pathological

3

What are the two times in which you would commonly see physiological apoptosis?

-during embryonic development
-during immune system development

4

What are the two categories of pathological apoptosis

-triggered by immune system cells in response to cell infection
-self induced due to defective function

5

IN GENERAL what is necrosis

Morphological changes during cell death after lethal damage
-staged cell death due to unintended damage

6

Is necrosis pathological of physiological?

Always pathological

7

Apoptosis during embryonic development

Removing unwanted cells
-example: removing tissue from webbing between fingers and toes

8

Apoptosis during immune system development

-t lymphocytes are tested against "self antigen So" and if they recognize and bind self antigens, they undergo apoptosis to prevent damage down the road where they could kill normal cells
-help prevent autoimmunity disorders

9

Apoptosis triggered by immune system cells

-when a harmful cell is identified, innate immune cells trigger that cells death

10

What are the ways in which a damage cell can be identified

-infected cells display "non self antigens" on their surface
-cancer cells display weird attributes to be recognized
-damage cells develop characteristics of damage

11

Self induced apoptosis

-cell surpasses threshold acceptable for survival
-usually caused by metabolic defects of accumulating toxins or problem with mitochondria

12

Intrinsic apoptotic pathway

Initiated by interior signaling due to irreparable irreversible DNA damage

13

Extrinsic apoptotic pathway

Initiated by exterior signals due to indications of damage or infection

14

Who initiates intrinsic apoptotic pathways?

Pro-apoptotic proteins from the nucleolus and mito

15

Who initiates extrinsic apoptosis?

T-cells of TNFalpha induce the death domain proteins

16

What do extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis have in common?

They both are caspase dependent
-different things activate caspases, but they are activated

17

What do cells do when caspases destroy proteins in the cell?

They begin to bleb into vesicles

18

What digests blebbed vesicles?

Phagocytic cells

19

AIF apoptosis inducing factor

A caspase-independent form of apoptosis

20

What does AIF do?

Leave the mitochondria goes through the cytosol, to the nucleus, to cause chromosome condensation

21

Once the chromosome is condensed by AIF, what happens to the DNA?

The DNA is chopped up

22

What is the over all effect of AIF?

The complete depletion of energy stores
-no new production of new proteins
-cell blebbing
-cell death WITHOUT USE OF CASPASES

23

What causes necrosis?

Severe trauma

24

What does necrosis involve?

-disruption of metabolic process
-cellular components denaturation
-loss of membrane integrity and release of cellular components

25

What does the disruption of metabolism leader told?

Loss of TCA and dependence on glycolysis
-leads to a build up lactic acid

26

What causes protein denaturation

Low ph from build up of lactic acid

27

Why is there an inflammatory response after necrosis?

Proteins are released from the cell into the tissue and causes inflammation

28

Why does cancer development

Continued inflammation stops cell death, so we're cells don't die, they reproduce and form cancer

29

Why is apoptosis good?

-considered a quiescent death
-does not negatively effect surrounding cells
-minimal repair/clean up needed

30

Why is necrosis bad?

-cause damage to surrounding cells
-extensive clean up needed
-lysosomes released cause hella problems
-inflammation leads to cancer