# Applied Kinesiology Flashcards Preview

## ACE Lesson 13: Applied Kinesiology > Applied Kinesiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Applied Kinesiology Deck (69)
1
Q

Newton’s 3 laws of motion

A

1) Law of inertia
2) Law of acceleration
3) Law of reaction

2
Q

the study of the form, pattern, or sequence of movement without regard for the forces that may produce motion

A

kinematics

3
Q

the branch of mechanics that describes the effects of forces on the body

A

kinetics

4
Q

internal force is produced by…

A

e.g., the muscles

5
Q

external force is produced by…

A

e.g., gravity’s pull on the barbell

6
Q

the law that states that a body at rest will stay at rest and that a body in motion will stay in motion (with the same direction and velocity) unless acted upon by an external force

A

law of intertia

7
Q

the law that states that the force acting on a body in a given direction is equal to the body’s mass multiplied by the body’s acceleration in that direction

A

law of acceleration

8
Q

the law that states that every applied force is accompanied by and equal and opposite reaction force (for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction)

A

law of reaction

9
Q

a change in an object’s position in relation to another object

A

motion

10
Q

4 types of motion

A

1) rotary
2) translatory
3) curvilinear
4) general plane

11
Q

motion around a joint (fixed axis point)

A

rotary

12
Q

object in motion is not tied down and moves in a straight line

A

translatory

13
Q

mixture of rotary and translatory motions

A

curvilinear

14
Q

motions at various joints that are simultaneously linear and rotary

A

general plane

15
Q

the fixed point of a lever

A

fulcrum

16
Q

T/F: The center of a joint acts as a fulcrum for rotary motion of the body segments.

A

True

17
Q

T/F: To lessen the resistance as fatigue occurs, move the weight closer to the working joint.

A

True

18
Q

T/F: A longer lever arm (for motive force) and a shorter lever arm (for resistance) creates a situation where less muscular force is required to lift the same weight.

A

True

19
Q

T/F: Longitudinal muscles allow for slow contractions but large force contractions.

A

False

Fast/speedy contractions but small force contractions

20
Q

the 4 articulations (joints) of the shoulder joint complex

A

1) scapulothoracic (S/T) articulation
2) acromioclavicular (A/C) joint
3) glenohumeral (G/H) joint
4) sternoclavicular (S/C) joint

21
Q

the junction of the sternum and the proximal clavicle

A

sternoclavicular (S/C) joint

22
Q

the junction of the acromion process of the scapula with the distal clavicle

A

acromioclavicular (A/C) joint

23
Q

the ball-and-socket joint composed of the glenoid fossa of the scapula and the humeral head

A

glenohumeral (G/H) joint

24
Q

the muscles and fascia connecting the scapulae to the thorax

A

scapulothoracic (S/T) joint

25
Q

the most mobile joint in the body

A

glenohumeral (G/H) joint

26
Q

the relationship where the G/H and S/T joints work together to produce coordinated flexion and extension in the sagittal plane and abduction and adduction in the frontal plane

A

scapulohumeral rhythm

27
Q

anterior shoulder girdle muscles

A

pectoralis minor and serratus anterior

28
Q

The serratus anterior works as a synergist with what muscle to produce upward rotation of the scapula?

A

upper trapezius

29
Q

posterior shoulder girdle muscles

A

trapezius, rhomboids, and levator scapulae

30
Q

T/F: Both anterior and posterior shoulder girdle muscles have no attachment to the humerus, and their action does not directly result in glenohumeral motion.

A

True

31
Q

the largest and most superficial of the posterior shoulder girdle muscles

A

trapezius

32
Q

muscles (prime movers) that produce movement at the glenohumeral (G/H) joint

A

pectoralis major, deltoid, rotator cuff, latissimus dorsi, and teres major

33
Q

the 3 sections/parts of the pectoralis major

A

1) clavicular
2) sternal
3) costal

34
Q

the pectoralis major is a prime mover for which movements of the G/H joint

A

2) horizontal flexion
3) internal rotation

35
Q

the muscle that acts as the primary abductor of the shoulder joint

A

deltoid

36
Q

group of muscles that stabilize the G/H joint and humeral head

A

rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis)

37
Q

nickname for the teres major

A

little lat

38
Q

latissimus dorsi and teres major produce these movements of the G/H joint

A

2) extension
3) internal rotation

39
Q

2 obesity-related biomechanics that should be paid more attention

A

1) postural balance

2) walking gait

40
Q

decreased muscle mass; often used to refer specifically to an age-related decline in muscle mass or lean-body tissue

A

sarcopenia

41
Q

exercises for older individuals who may experience issues such as sarcopenia, osteoporosis, osteopenia, or have issues related to endurance, mobility, stability, and self-efficacy

A

1) chair-seated exercise

2) aquatic exercise

42
Q

primary hip extensors (posterior hip muscles)

A

hamstrings (biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus) and the gluteus maximus

43
Q

primary hip flexors (anterior hip muscles)

A

iliopsoas, rectus femoris, sartorius, and tensor fasciae latae

44
Q

primary hip abductors

A

superior fibers of the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and gluteus minimus

45
Q

primary hip external rotators (located deep to the gluteus maximus)

A

piriformis, superior gemellus, obturator internus, inferior gemellus, obturator externus, and quadratus femoris

46
Q

primary hip adductors and internal rotators

A

47
Q

prime mover for knee extension when acting concentrically

A

rectus femoris

48
Q

primary knee flexors

A

hamstrings (biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus)

49
Q

primary internal rotators of the knee

A

semitendinosus and semimembranosus

50
Q

primary external rotator of the knee

A

biceps femoris

51
Q

responsible for initiating knee flexion and “unlocking” the knee from its extended position

A

popliteus

52
Q

anterior leg muscles

A

dorsiflexors (anterior tibialis, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus)

53
Q

posterior leg muscles

A

plantarflexors (posterior tibialis, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, popliteus, soleus, gastrocnemius, and plantaris)

54
Q

deep posterior compartment muscles

A

posterior tibialis, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, and popliteus

55
Q

superficial posterior compartment muscles

A

soleus, gastrocnemius, and plantaris

56
Q

lateral leg muscles (evertors)

A

peroneus longus and peroneus brevis

57
Q

medial leg muscles (invertors)

A

anterior tibialis and posterior tibialis

58
Q

the 2 muscles that are primarily responsible for concentric inversion (i.e., pulling the foot toward the midline in the frontal plane)

A

anterior tibialis and posterior tibialis

59
Q

the biomechanical alignment of the individual body parts and the orientation of the body to the environment

A

posture

60
Q

the ability to maintain the body’s position over its base of support within stability limits, both statically and dynamically

A

balance

61
Q

abnormal posture condition which can result from psoas tightness (inflexibility) and passive hyperextension of the lumbar spine

A

lordosis

62
Q

3 most common abnormal postures

A

lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis

63
Q

excess anterior curvature of the spine that typically occurs at the low back; associated with anterior tilting of the pelvis

A

lordosis

64
Q

excessive posterior curvature of the spine (typically seen in the thoracic region); gives the individual a “humpback” look with rounded shoulders, sunken chest, and head-forward posture with neck hyperextension

A

kyphosis

65
Q

common abnormal posture among older adults with osteoporosis

A

kyphosis

66
Q

decrease in the normal inward curve of the lower back with the pelvis in posterior tilt

A

flat-back

67
Q

long outward curve of the thoracic spine with a decreased anterior lumbar curve and a backward shift of the upper trunk; accompanied by rounded shoulders, sunken chest, and forward-tilted head

A

sway-back

68
Q

excessive lateral curvature of the spine, with the pelvis and shoulders being uneven and a posterior shifting of the rib cage on one side

A

scoliosis

69
Q

T/F: Scoliosis is more common among men than women.

A

False

more common among women