Flashcards in Applied Linguistics Terms Deck (13):
What is aspect?
Montrul & Salaberry “Different perspectives which a speaker can take and express with regard to
the temporal course of some event, action, process, etc.”
Merriam-Webster “the nature of the action of a verb as to its beginning, duration, completion, or
repetition and without reference to its position in time”
How is aspect expressed?
Lexically (determined by syntactic and semantic tests)
What is tense?
A category that places a situation in time with respect to the moment of speech.
Lexical Aspect categories
1. States--ser, estar, tener, querer
2. Activities--correr, construir, pintar
3. Accomplishment --"correr una milla", "construir una casa", "pintar un cuadro"
4. Achievement--morirse, darse cuenta de algo
Which of these tense aspects are telic?
Accomplishments and Achievements
What does telic mean?
Events with an inherent endpoint or endpoints
What does atelic mean?
Events w/o an inherent endpoint
Which tense categories are atelic?
Grammatical Aspect (perfective-imperfective)
Perfective "bounded" = beginning and end of a situation (inceptive, punctual, or completive)
Imperfective "unbounded" = ongoing (durative or habitual)
Lexical Aspect Hypothesis
attempts to explain the observed correlation between tense/aspect
morphemes and lexical aspectual classes according to the
Relevance Principle [...] and the Congruence Principle” (Montrul &
Suggests that verbal morphology, in early stages of SLA, encodes only
relevant information (inherent aspect) and not tense or grammatical
Developmental Stages (based on Andersen 1986)
States: Present >Imperfect> Pret/Imperfect
Evidence for Andersen's Developmental Stages
Hasbún (1995) 80 L1 English speakers, Pret. did not expand from telics
Lafford (1996) preportion of past tense-present tense was higher for telic verbs across all levels
Salaberry (1999) no uses of imperfect in lowest level (20 L2 Spanish students, 5 levels)