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Flashcards in Approaches Deck (58):
1

Psychology

The scientific study of the human mind and its functions especially those functions affecting behaviour in a given context.

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Science

A means of acquiring knowledge through systematic and objective investigation. The aim is to discover general laws.

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Introspection

The first systematic experimental attempt to study the mind by breaking up conscious awareness into basic structures of thoughts, images and sensations

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Behaviourist approach

A way of explaining behaviour in terms of what is observable and in terms of learning.

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Classical conditioning

Learning by association.occurs when 2 stimuli are repeatedly paired together (an unconditioned stimulus and a neutral stimulus.) The neutral stimulus eventually produces the same response that was the first produced by the unlearned stimulus alone.

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Operant conditioning

A form of learning in which behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences. Possible consequences of behaviour includes positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement or punishment.

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Reinforcement

A consequence of behaviour that increases the likelihood of that behaviour being repeated. Can be positive/negative.

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Social Learning Theory

a way of explaining behaviour that includes both direct and indirect reinforcement, combining learning theory with the role of cognitive factors.

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Imitation

Copying the behaviour of others.

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Identification

When an observer associates themselves with a role model and wants to be like the role model.

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Modelling

From the observer's perspective, modelling is imitating the behaviour of a role model. From the role model's perspective, modelling is the precise demonstration of a specific behaviour that may be imitated by an observer.

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Vicarious Reinforcement

Reinforcement which isn't directly experienced but occurs through observing someone else being reinforced for a behaviour. This is a key factor in imitation.

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Mediational Processes

Cognitive factors (thinking) that influence learning and come between stimulus and response.

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Cognitive Approach

This approach is focused on how our mental processes affect behaviour.

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Internal Mental Processes

Private operations of the mind such as perception and attention that mediate between stimulus and response.

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Schema

A mental framework of beliefs and expectations that influence cognitive processing. They are developed from experience.

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Inference

The process whereby cognitive psychologists draw conclusions about the way mental processes operate on the basis of the observed behaviour.

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Cognitive Neuroscience

The scientific study of biological structures that underpin cognitive processes.

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Biological Approach

A perspective that emphasises the importance of physical processes in the body such as genetic inheritance and neural function.

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Genes

They make up chromosomes and consist of DNA which codes the physical features of an organism and psychological features. Genes are transmitted from parents to offspring.

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Biological Structure

An arrangement or organisation of parts to form an organ, system or living thing.

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Neurochemistry

Relating to chemicals in the brain that regulate psychological functioning.

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Genotype

The particular set of genes that a person possesses.

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Phenotype

The characteristics of an individual determined by both genes and the environment.

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Evolution

The changes in inherited characteristics in a biological population over successive generations.

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Nervous system

Consists of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

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Central Nervous System

Consists of the brain and the spinal cord and is the origin of all complex commands and decisions.

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Peripheral Nervous System

Sends information to he CNS from the outside world and transmits messages from the CNS to muscles and glands in the body.

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Somatic Nervous System

Transmits information from receptor cells in the sense organ to the CNS. It also receives information from the CNS that directs muscles to act.

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Autonomic Nervous System

Transmits information to and from internal bodily organs. It is autonomic as the system operates involuntarily. It has 2 main divisions: the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

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Neuron

The basic building blocks of the nervous system, neurons are nerve cells that process and transmit messages through electrical and chemical signals.

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Sensory neurons

These carry messages from the PNS to the CNS. They have long dendrites and short axons.

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Relay neurons

These connect the sensory neurons to the motor or other relay neurons. They have short dendrites and short axons.

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Motor Neurons

These connect the CNS to effectors such as muscles and glands. They have short dendrites and long axons.

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Psychodynamic approach

A perspective that describes the different forces most of which are unconscious that operate on the mind and direct human behaviour and experience.

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The unconscious

The part of the mind that we are unaware of but which continues to direct much of our behaviour.

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Id

Entirely unconscious the id is made up of selfish aggressive instincts that demand immediate gratification.

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Ego

The reality check that balances the conflicting demands of the Id and the superego.

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Superego

The moralistic part of our personality which represents the ideal self how we ought to be.

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Defence Mechanisms

Unconscious strategies that the ego uses to manage the conflict between the id and he superego.

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Psychosexual stages

5 developmental stages that all children pass through. At each stage there is a different conflict the outcome of which determines future development.

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Oral stage

0-1 years. Focus of pleasure is the mouth, mothers breast is object of desire. Oral fixation-smoking, biting nails, sarcastic, critical etc.

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Anal stage

1-3 years. Focus of pleasure is the anus. Child gains pleasure from withholding and expelling faeces. Anal retentive and anal expulsive.

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Anal retentive

perfectionist, obsessive

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Anal expulsive

thoughtless,messy

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Phallic stage

3-5 years. Focus of pleasure is the genital area. Child experiences the Oedipus or Electra complex. Phallic personality-narcissistic, reckless, possibly homosexual.

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Latency

Earlier conflicts are repressed

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Genital

Sexual desires become conscious alongside the onset of puberty. Difficulty forming heterosexual relationships.

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Repression

Forcing a distress memory out of the conscious mind

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Denial

Refusing to acknowledge some aspect of reality.

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Displacement

Transferring feelings from true source of distressing emotion onto a substitute target.

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Humanistic psychology approach

An approach to understanding behaviour that emphasises the importance of subjective experience and each person's capacity for self-determination.

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Free will

The notion that humans can make choices and are not determined by biological or external forces.

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self-actualisation

The desire to grow psychologically and fulfil one's full potential-becoming what you are capable of.

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Hierarchy of needs

A 5-levelled hierarchal sequence in which basic needs must be satisfied before psychological needs can be achieved.

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Self

The ideas and values that characterise I and me and includes perception and valuing of 'what I am' and 'what I can do.'

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Congruence

The aim of rogerian therapy; when the self-concept and ideal self are seen to broadly accord or match.

58

Conditions of worth

When a parent places limits or boundaries on their love of their children; EG a parent saying to a child 'I will only love you if you study medicine' or 'if you split up with that boy.'