Flashcards in Approaches Deck (58):
The scientific study of the human mind and its functions especially those functions affecting behaviour in a given context.
A means of acquiring knowledge through systematic and objective investigation. The aim is to discover general laws.
The first systematic experimental attempt to study the mind by breaking up conscious awareness into basic structures of thoughts, images and sensations
A way of explaining behaviour in terms of what is observable and in terms of learning.
Learning by association.occurs when 2 stimuli are repeatedly paired together (an unconditioned stimulus and a neutral stimulus.) The neutral stimulus eventually produces the same response that was the first produced by the unlearned stimulus alone.
A form of learning in which behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences. Possible consequences of behaviour includes positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement or punishment.
A consequence of behaviour that increases the likelihood of that behaviour being repeated. Can be positive/negative.
Social Learning Theory
a way of explaining behaviour that includes both direct and indirect reinforcement, combining learning theory with the role of cognitive factors.
Copying the behaviour of others.
When an observer associates themselves with a role model and wants to be like the role model.
From the observer's perspective, modelling is imitating the behaviour of a role model. From the role model's perspective, modelling is the precise demonstration of a specific behaviour that may be imitated by an observer.
Reinforcement which isn't directly experienced but occurs through observing someone else being reinforced for a behaviour. This is a key factor in imitation.
Cognitive factors (thinking) that influence learning and come between stimulus and response.
This approach is focused on how our mental processes affect behaviour.
Internal Mental Processes
Private operations of the mind such as perception and attention that mediate between stimulus and response.
A mental framework of beliefs and expectations that influence cognitive processing. They are developed from experience.
The process whereby cognitive psychologists draw conclusions about the way mental processes operate on the basis of the observed behaviour.
The scientific study of biological structures that underpin cognitive processes.
A perspective that emphasises the importance of physical processes in the body such as genetic inheritance and neural function.
They make up chromosomes and consist of DNA which codes the physical features of an organism and psychological features. Genes are transmitted from parents to offspring.
An arrangement or organisation of parts to form an organ, system or living thing.
Relating to chemicals in the brain that regulate psychological functioning.
The particular set of genes that a person possesses.
The characteristics of an individual determined by both genes and the environment.
The changes in inherited characteristics in a biological population over successive generations.
Consists of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
Central Nervous System
Consists of the brain and the spinal cord and is the origin of all complex commands and decisions.
Peripheral Nervous System
Sends information to he CNS from the outside world and transmits messages from the CNS to muscles and glands in the body.
Somatic Nervous System
Transmits information from receptor cells in the sense organ to the CNS. It also receives information from the CNS that directs muscles to act.
Autonomic Nervous System
Transmits information to and from internal bodily organs. It is autonomic as the system operates involuntarily. It has 2 main divisions: the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
The basic building blocks of the nervous system, neurons are nerve cells that process and transmit messages through electrical and chemical signals.
These carry messages from the PNS to the CNS. They have long dendrites and short axons.
These connect the sensory neurons to the motor or other relay neurons. They have short dendrites and short axons.
These connect the CNS to effectors such as muscles and glands. They have short dendrites and long axons.
A perspective that describes the different forces most of which are unconscious that operate on the mind and direct human behaviour and experience.
The part of the mind that we are unaware of but which continues to direct much of our behaviour.
Entirely unconscious the id is made up of selfish aggressive instincts that demand immediate gratification.
The reality check that balances the conflicting demands of the Id and the superego.
The moralistic part of our personality which represents the ideal self how we ought to be.
Unconscious strategies that the ego uses to manage the conflict between the id and he superego.
5 developmental stages that all children pass through. At each stage there is a different conflict the outcome of which determines future development.
0-1 years. Focus of pleasure is the mouth, mothers breast is object of desire. Oral fixation-smoking, biting nails, sarcastic, critical etc.
1-3 years. Focus of pleasure is the anus. Child gains pleasure from withholding and expelling faeces. Anal retentive and anal expulsive.
3-5 years. Focus of pleasure is the genital area. Child experiences the Oedipus or Electra complex. Phallic personality-narcissistic, reckless, possibly homosexual.
Earlier conflicts are repressed
Sexual desires become conscious alongside the onset of puberty. Difficulty forming heterosexual relationships.
Forcing a distress memory out of the conscious mind
Refusing to acknowledge some aspect of reality.
Transferring feelings from true source of distressing emotion onto a substitute target.
Humanistic psychology approach
An approach to understanding behaviour that emphasises the importance of subjective experience and each person's capacity for self-determination.
The notion that humans can make choices and are not determined by biological or external forces.
The desire to grow psychologically and fulfil one's full potential-becoming what you are capable of.
Hierarchy of needs
A 5-levelled hierarchal sequence in which basic needs must be satisfied before psychological needs can be achieved.
The ideas and values that characterise I and me and includes perception and valuing of 'what I am' and 'what I can do.'
The aim of rogerian therapy; when the self-concept and ideal self are seen to broadly accord or match.