What are the unique physical properties of water?
Its melting point, boiling point, density in solid and liquid phases and surface tension.
What can the unique physical properties of water be explained by?
Its molecular shape and Hydrogen bonding between molecules.
What is the melting point of water?
What is the boiling point of water?
What is the freezing point of water?
What does the melting/freezing/boiling point of water depend on?
Pressure, adding a solute.
How can the boiling point of water be increased?
Pressure, adding a solute.
What is the density of liquid water?
What does the buoyancy of ice in water suggest?
Solid water (ice) has a lower density than liquid water. Its density decreases as it cools.
Define surface tension.
Cohesive forces between molecules. Molecules at the surface do not have molecules on all sides and adhere more strongly.
The quantity of solute dissolved in a quantity of solution.
How can concentration be represented?
By the number of moles of the solute per litre of solution (mol/L), the mass of the solute per litre (g/L) and parts per million (ppm).
The soluble substance that is dissolved to make a solution.
The substance that is able to dissolve the solute in a solution.
A homogeneous mixture (same composition and properties throughout) made up of a solute dissolved in a solvent. A mixture of 2 or more substances in a single phase.
Define saturated solution.
A solution where no more solute is able to dissolve in a solvent.
Define unsaturated solution.
A solution that contains less than the quantity of solute required to saturate it.
Define supersaturated solution.
A solution prepared under certain conditions which contains more solute than is contained in a saturated solution.
When a solute is able to readily dissolve in a particular solvent.
When a solute is unable to dissolve in a particular solvent.
A solution with comparatively little solute dissolved in a solvent.
A solution with a high proportion of solute dissolved in a solvent.
Define Brownian motion.
The name given to the random motion of particles in a liquid.
Define gas solution.
A homogeneous mixture of gases, where gases are dissolved in other gases. Eg: air, smoke.
Define solid in liquid.
A homogeneous mixture of a solid or solids dissolved in liquid.
Eg: seawater, cordial.
Define liquid in liquid.
A homogeneous mixture of one liquid dissolved in another. Eg: beer/wine (alcohol dissolved in water), 2 stroke fuel (oil in petrol).
Define gas in liquid.
A homogeneous mixture of a gas dissolved in a liquid.
Eg: soft drinks (CO2 dissolved in water).
Define solid in solid.
A homogeneous mixture of one solid in another.
Eg: coins, solder, bronze, brass (alloys).
Is solubility related at all to the solute?
Yes, some solutes are insoluble and some are soluble, this affects the solubility.
2 or more different atoms chemically combined.