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Flashcards in Arthrology Deck (43)
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What are kinematics?

Branch of mechanics that deals with the motion of a body without reference to the forces that produce the motion.


What are kinetics?

Branch o f mechanics that deals with the relations between the force system acting on a body and the changes it produces in the body motion.


What is an Axis? What are the 3 axes?

A line around which rotary movement takes place or along which translation occurs. X-axis, Y-axis, Z-axis


What is a plane? What are the 3 planes?

A flat surface determined by the position ofthree points in space. Sagittal, Coronal, Transverse


What two motions occur in the sagittal plane? Which axis is this?

Flexion and extension; this is the x-axis


What two motions occur in the coronal plane? Which axis is this?

Lateral flexion, Abduction/Adduction; This is the Z-axis


What motions occur in the transverse plane? Which axis is this?

Rotation; this is the y-axis


What is out-of-plane motion?

Motion in which all points of a rigid body do not move in a single plane


What is plane motion?

Motion in which all points of a rigid body move parallel to a fixed plane (two dimensional movement).


What is an Instantaneous Axis of Rotation (IAR)?

It is basically a pivot point.


Where is IAR found?

Found at the intersection of the two perpendicular bisectors of
translation vectors A1 A2 and B, B2 of any two points A and B on the body.


What is a motion segment?

Smallest spinal segment exhibiting biomechanical characteristics similar to those of the entire spine. It consists of two adjacent vertebrae and their interconnecting
joints and soft tissues.


What is coupled motion?

The consistent association of one motion (translation or rotation) about one axis with another motion about a second axis.


What is an example of coupled motion?

Rotation and lateral flexion of the cervical spine


What are degrees of freedom? How many does the spine exhibit?

The number of ways in which a body can move. The spine exhibits 6 degrees of freedom


What is loose-packed?

The resting or "neutral" position of a joint,
when the capsule is most relaxed and the greatest amount of play is possible.


What is close-packed?

The position of a joint when the capsule and ligaments are maximally tightened and there is maximal contact between the articular surfaces.


What are the three structural joint classifications?

Fibrous, Cartilaginous, and Synovial


What is a fibrous joint? How much movement? Examples?

joint formed by fibrous connective tissue; little movement if any; sutures, syndesmosis, and gomphosis


What is a cartilaginous joint? How much movement? Examples?

joint formed by cartilage; limited movement; synchondrosis and symphysis


What is a synovial joint? How much movement?

Joints with articular cartilage, ligamentous joint capsule and synovial membrane and fluid; freely movable.


What are the 6 types of synovial joints?

Plane, Ginglymus (hinge), trochoid (pivot), Condyloid (condylar), ellipsoid, sellar (saddle), and Spheroid (ball and socket)


What are the three functional joint classifications?

Synarthrosis (=fibrous), Amphiarthroses (=cartilagenous), Diarthroses (=synovial)


What are the two kinesiologic joint classifications?

Simple ovoid (roundest=least specialized movement) and Complex ovoid (less round=more specialized movement)


What are the two types of simple ovoid? Examples?

Unmodified- triaxial (ball and socket; shoulder), Modified- biaxial (ellipsoid; MP joints)


What are the two types of complex ovoid? Examples?

Unmodified- biaxial (saddle; thumb joint), modified- uniaxial (hinge; elbow)


What was MacConail's main focus with joint motion?

The movement occurring at the joint surfaces


What is osteokinematics?

The study ofmovement occurring between two bones.


What is a mechanical axis?

A line passing through the moving bone at the starting position of a movement. The mechanical axis passes through the center o f the opposing joint surface and is perpendicular to it.


What is Spin?

Rotational movement arouud the
mechanical axis.