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Flashcards in AS Biology Deck (54)
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1
Q

Glucose

A

A monosaccharide with the chemical formula of C6H12O6. One of the main products of photosynthesis in plants

2
Q

Hexose monosaccharide

A

A monosaccharide composed of six carbons

3
Q

Condensation reaction

A

A reaction between two molecules resulting in the formation of larger molecule and the release of water molecule.

4
Q

Maltose

A

Two glucose molecules linked by a 1,4 glyosidic bond

5
Q

Disaccharide

A

A molecule comprising monosaccharides, joined together by a glycosidic bond

6
Q

Sucrose

A

A disaccharide made up of fructose and glucose monosaccharides

7
Q

Lactose

A

A disaccharide made up of galactose and glucose monosaccharides

8
Q

Ribose

A

The pentose sugar present in RNA molecules

9
Q

Starch

A

A polysaccharide formed from alpha glucose molecules joined together to form amylose and amyloprotein

10
Q

Glycogen

A

A branched polysaccharide formed from alpha glucose molecules. A chemical energy store in animal cells

11
Q

Cellulose

A

A polysaccharide formed from beta glucose molecules where alternate beta glucose molecules. Forms hydrogen bonds with other cellulose molecules. Major component of plant cells

12
Q

Benedict’s reagent

A

An alkaline solution of copper (II) sulphate used in chemical tests for reducing and non-reducing sugars

13
Q

Hydrophobic

A

The physical property of molecule that is repelled by water

14
Q

Hydrophilic

A

The physical property of molecule that is attracted to water

15
Q

Primary structure

A

The sequence in which amino acids are joined together

16
Q

Secondary structure

A

Repeating structure of amino acids. Hydrogen bonds form within amino acid chain pulling into a coiled shape (alpha helix)

17
Q

Tertiary structure

A

Further folding of the secondary structure of proteins involving interactions between R-groups

18
Q

Quaternary structure

A

The result from the association of two or more individual proteins called subuints

19
Q

Globular proteins

A

Spherical, water soluble proteins

20
Q

Phosphodiester bonds

A

Covalent bonds formed between the phosphate group of one nucleotide and the hydroxyl (OH) group of another

21
Q

Pyrimidines

A

Single –ringed nitrogenous bases that form a part of a nucleotide

22
Q

Purines

A

Double-ringed nitrogenous baes that form a part of a nucleotide

23
Q

Sense strand

A

The strand of DNA that runs 5 prime to 3 prime and contains the genetic code for a protein

24
Q

Template strand

A

The antisense strand with DNA that acts as a template during transcription so that the complementary RNA strand formed carries the same code for a protein as the DNA sense strand

25
Q

Transcription

A

The process of copying sections of DNA base sequence to produce smaller molecules of mRNA, which can be transported out of the nucleus via the nuclear pores to the site of protein synthesis

26
Q

Antisense strand

A

The strand of DNA that runs 3 prime to 5 prime and is complementary to the sense strand. It acts as a template strand during transcription

27
Q

Adenosine triphosphate

A

A nucleotide composed of nitrogenous bas, a pentose sugar and three phosphate groups.

28
Q

Adenosine diphosphate

A

A nucleotide composed of a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar and two phosphate groups. Formed by the hydrolysis of ATP, releasing phosphate ion and energy

29
Q

Anabolic

A

Reactions of the metabolism that construct molecules from smaller units. These reactions require energy from the hydrolysis of ATP

30
Q

Induced-fit hypothesis

A

Modified lock and key explanation for enzyme action; the active site of the enzyme is modified in shape by binding to the substrate

31
Q

Intrinsic protein

A

Proteins that run all the way through the phospholipid bilayer

32
Q

Glycoproteins

A

Extrinsic membrane proteins with attached carbohydrate molecules of varying lengths and shapes

33
Q

Channel proteins

A

Membrane proteins that provide a hydrophilic channel through membrane

34
Q

Carrier proteins

A

Membrane proteins that play a part in transport of substance through membrane

35
Q

Endocytosis

A

The bulk transport of materials into cell via the invagination of the cell surface membrane forming vesicle

36
Q

Exocytosis

A

The bulk transport material out of cells. Vesicles containing the material fuse with the cell surface membrane and the contents are released to the outside of the cell

37
Q

Hydrostatic pressure

A

The pressure created by water in an enclosed system

38
Q

Turgor

A

The pressure exerted by the cell-surface membrane against the cell wall in a plant cell

39
Q

Tidal volume

A

The volume of air which moves into and out of the lungs with each resting breath.

40
Q

Vital capacity

A

Volume of air that can be breathed in when the strongest possible exhalation is followed by the deepest possible intake of breath

41
Q

Inspiratory reserve volume

A

The maximum volume of air that can be breathed in over or above a normal inhalation

42
Q

Expiratory reserve volume

A

The extra amount of air that can be forced out of the lungs over and above the normal exhalation

43
Q

Residual volume

A

The volume of air that is left in the lungs after forced exhalation. It cannot be measured directly

44
Q

Closed circulatory system

A

A circulatory system where the blood is enclosed in blood vessels and does not come into direct contact with the cells of the body beyond blood vessels

45
Q

Open circulatory system

A

A circulatory system with a heart but few vessels to contain the transport medium

46
Q

Lymphocytes

A

White blood cells that make up the specific immune system

47
Q

Phagocytosis

A

Process by which white blood cells call phagocytes recognise non-self-cells, engulf them digest them within a vesicle called phagosome

48
Q

Primary immune response

A

The relatively slow production of small number of the correct antibodies the first time a pathogen is encountered

49
Q

Secondary immune response

A

The relatively fast production a very large quantities of correct antibodies the second time a pathogen is encountered as a result of immunological memory- the second stage of a specific immune response

50
Q

T helper cells

A

T lymphocytes with CD4 receptors on their cell-surface membranes, which bin to antigens on antigen-presenting cells and produce interleukins, a type of cytokine

51
Q

T killer cells

A

T lymphocytes that destroy pathogens carrying a specific antigen with perforin

52
Q

T memory cells

A

T lymphocytes that live a long time and are part of the immunological memory

53
Q

B memory cells

A

B lymphocytes that live a long time and provide immunological memory of the antibody needed against a specific antigen

54
Q

B effector cells

A

B lymphocytes that divide to form plasma cell clones