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Flashcards in Assessment 1 Deck (67):
1

Pectoral girdle connects what?

the upper extremity to the axial skeleton

2

whats the acromioclavicular joint?

- where the lateral end of the clavicle & the acromion of the scapula articulate

- only bony attachment of the scapula

- synovial joint

- allows movement in the anterior/posterior & vertical planes along with some axial rotation

3

what is the sternoclavicular joint

- between medial end of the clavicle and the manubrium of the sternum

- sole bony articulation of the UL with the axial skeleton

4

3 angles of the posterior (dorsal) scapula

1. superior angle
2. inferior angle
3. glenoid fossa (lateral angle)
**INSERT PICTURE

5

3 borders of posterior (dorsal) scapula

1. superior border
2. medial border
3. lateral border
**INSERT PICTURE

6

2 surfaces of posterior (dorsal) scapula

1. scapular spine
2. acromion
**INSERT PICTURE

7

**Know where greater & lesser tubercles & inter tubercular groove are

**INSERT PICTURE

8

The base (of medial end) of the spine is located at what level of the spinal vertebrae?

thoracic vertebrae 3 (TV3)

9

The inferior angle of the scapula is located at what level of the spinal vertebrae?

thoracic vertebrae 7 (TV7)

10

medial border of the scapula is generally said to span vertically from about the level of ____ to _____

TV2 to TV7

11

What does flexion mean with joints

- to decrease the size of the joint angle

- Ex: bending forward at the waist

12

What does extension of a joint mean

- the straightening of a particular joint to increase the size of the joint angle

- Ex: returning trunk to upright position or leaning back at waist

13

What does lateral flexion refer to

side-to-side deviation of the trunk or head from the median sagittal plane

14

What does rotation refer to

turning or revolving a part of the body around its longitudinal axis (twisting motion)

15

What is ADduction

- movement TOWARDS the main axis of the structure

- Ex: raising upper extremity to the side

16

what is ABduction

- movement AWAY from the main axis of a structure

- Ex: returning upper extremity to the side of the body

17

Medial rotation

- internal rotation
- brings the anterior surface of the limb closer to the median plane

18

lateral rotation

- external rotation
- brings the anterior surface of the limb further away from the median plane

19

Protraction of scapula

MOTION:
- swinging arm in front of body moves scapula kind of out and forward and hence protraction

MUSCLES:
- serratus anterior
- pectorals minor

20

retraction of scapula

MOTION:
- swinging arm behind you moves scapula kind of towards your head and hence retraction

MUSCLES:
- rhomboid major
- rhomboid minor
- middle trapezius

21

Coronal body plane

- aka frontal plane
- oriented vertically
- divide body into anterior & posterior parts

22

transverse body plane

- aka horizontal plane
- oriented horizontally
- divide the body into upper and lower parts

23

sagittal body plane

- oriented vertically, but are at right angles to the coronal planes
- divide body into right & left parts

24

medial

- closer to median plane

25

lateral

- further from median plane

26

ventral

- aka anterior
- front

27

dorsal

- aka posterior
- back

28

superior

- aka cephalic
- towards head

29

inferior

- aka caudal
- towards feet

30

superficial

- closer to surface of body

31

deep

- deeper into body

32

proximal

- closer to structure's origin

33

distal

- farther away from structure's origin

34

median plane

- aka mid-sagittal
- divides body into equal right/left parts

35

axial skeleton is comprised of...

1. skull
2. vertebral column
3. ribs
4. sternum

36

appendicular skeleton is comprised of...

1. bones of upper extremities
2. bones of lower extremities
3. shoulder girdle
4. pelvic girdle

37

Identify the following on the scapula:
1. Medial border
2. lateral border
3. superior border
4. superior angle
5. inferior angle
6. glenoid fossa (lateral angle)
7. spine
8. acromion
9. coracoid process
10. suprascapular notch

**INSERT PICTURE

38

Identify the conoid tubercle on the clavicle

**INSERT PICTURE

39

Identify the following on the proximal humerus:
1. head
2. anatomical neck
3. surgical neck
4. greater tubercle
5. lesser tubercle
6. inter tubercular groove

**INSERT PICTURE

40

elevation of scapula

MOTION:
- moving towards ears

MUSCLES:
- Upper trapezius
- levator scapulae

41

depression of scapula

MOTION:
- moving away from ears

MUSCLES:
- lower trapezius
- lower serrates anterior
- gravity

42

??? superior rotation of lateral angle of scapula

MOTION:
-

MUSCLES:
- upper & lower trapezius
- lower serrates anterior

43

??? inferior rotation of lateral angle of scapula

MOTION:
-

MUSCLES:
- levator scapulae
- rhomboid major
- rhomboid minor
- upper serratus anterior
- gravity

44

Name the 5 muscles of the superficial back

1. trapezius
2. latissimus
3. dorsi
4. levator scapulae
5. rhomboid major
6. rhomboid minor

45

origin of trapezius

- external occipital protuberance of the skull
- C1-T12 Spinous processes

46

insertion of trapezius

- Inner margin of the Clavicle (upper fibers)
- inner margin of the acromion (middle fibers)
- inner margin of the scapular spine (lower fibers)

47

innervation of trapezius

- subtrapezial nerve plexus

- CN XI (cranial nerve 11; accessory nerve) with small contributions from C3 & C4 ventral Rami

48

action of trapezius, elevator scapulae, rhomboid minor, & rhomboid major

- move shoulder girdle

49

origin of Levator Scapulae

C1-C4 transverse processess

50

insertion of Levator Scapulae, Rhomboid minor, & Rhomboid major

Medial border of scapula above spine, at spine, & below spine (respectively)

51

Innervation of Levator Scapulae, Rhomboid minor, & Rhomboid major

- dorsal scapular N

- Note that the elevator scapulae also receives innervation from the 3rd & 4th cervical spinal nerves

52

origin of rhomboid minor

C7-T1 spinous processes

53

Origin of Rhomboid major

T2-T5 spinous processes

54

Origin of latissimus dorsi

- T6-L5 spins processes
- Iliac crest
- thoracolumbar fascia

55

Insertion of latissimus dorsi

- inter tubercular groove of humerus

56

innervation of latissimus dorsi

thoracodorsal N.

57

action of latissimus dorsi

extension, adduction, & medial rotation at the shoulder

58

fibrous joints

- bones directly united by fibrous tissue

- Ex: sutures of the skull, interosseous membranes

- Range of Motion: little/no mvmnt

59

Cartilaginous Joints

- bones connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage

- Ex: intervertebral disks, pubic symphysis

- Range of Motion: slightly moveable, strong

60

Synovial Joints

- bones connected via a fibrous tissue articular capsule that connects the encloses of the articulating bones forming a joint cavity
- contains a synovial membrane
- synovial cavity contains synovial fluid

- Ex: shoulder joint, hip joint, acromioclavicular joint

- Range of Motion: large range of mvmnt b/w the articulating bones

61

Articular capsule

consist of fibrous tissue that connects & encloses the two articulating bones forming a joint cavity

62

capsular ligaments

these are specialized thickenings of parts of the capsule that form intrinsic ligaments responsible for support, stability, and limiting joint mvmnt

63

articular cartilage

- comprised of hyaline or fibrocartilage, covers surfaces of the articulating bones
- provides a wear-resistant, lubricated surface that reduces friction & wear-and-tear of bones

64

synovial membrane

- lines all inner surfaces of the joint cavity except the surfaces of the articular cartilage
- secretes a small amount of synovial fluid that lubricates all structures of the joint

65

articular disc/meniscus

- intracavity structures located in some synovial joints
- help make articular surfaces more compatible with one another

66

extrinsic ligaments

- in some synovial joints
- non capsular ligaments develop around the joint to provide increased strength and stability

67

bursae

- extension of synovial membrane & joint cavity
- contain synovial fluid & function to facilitate joint & muscular mvmnts
- often interposed b/w 2 muscles or b/w muscle and bone