What are the four quantum numbers?
1. the principal quantum number, n 2. the angular momentum quantum number, l 3. the magnetic quantum number, ml 4. the spin magnetic quantum number, ms
What does the principal quantum number, n, tell us?
The size of the orbital (which energy level we are using)
What are the possible values of the principal quantum number?
n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ..... (integers)
What does the angular momentum quantum number, l, tell us?
The type of orbital
What type of orbital will have an angular momentum quantum number of: a) l=0 b) l=1 c) l=2 d) l=3
a) l=0 identifies an s-type orbital b) l=1 identifies a p-type orbital c) l=2 identifies a d-type orbital d) l=3 identifies an f-type orbital
What does the magnetic quantum number,ml, tell us?
Identifies which specific orbital within an orbital type we are using.
How many types of s orbitals (l=0) are there?
l=0 → m=0 → only one type of s orbital
How many types of p orbitals (l=1) are there?
l=1 → m=-1,0,+1 → three types of p orbital (known as px, py, pz)
How many types of d orbitals (l=2) are there?
l=2 → m=-2,-1,0,+1,+2 → five types of d orbital (known as dxy, dxz, dyz, dz2, dx2-y2)
How many types of f orbitals (l=3) are there?
l=3 → m=-3,-2,-1,0,+1,+2,+3 → seven types of f orbital (known as fx3, fy3, fz3, fxyz, fx(z2-y2), fy(z2-y2), fz(x2-y2)
What does the spin magnetic quantum number, ms, tell us?
The direction of spin of the electron
Give the principal quantum number for one of the outermost electrons in carbon
Carbon's outer electron in is the 2nd energy level, so n=2
Give the angular momentum number for one of the outermost electrons in carbon
Carbon is a p-block element. It's outer most electrons occupy a p-orbital, so l=1
Which of the following magnetic quantum numbers is not possible in the ground state for one of carbon's outermost electrons?
Carbon is a p-block element. It's outer most electrons occupy a p-orbital, so l=1. This means the values of m allowed are -1,0,+1 (since there are 3 types of p orbital). m=-2 is not allowed.
Describe the shape of an s orbital
Describe the shape of p orbitals
Dumbbells across the axes
Describe the shape of d orbitals
Occur in five different orientations
Electrons in the same orbital will have identical quantum numbers.
True or false?
The four quantum numbers provide an address for the electron. No two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers.