Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Year 10 Flashcards

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1
Q

describe the trend in reactivity in group 1 elements as you go down the group

A

increasing reactivity, lower melting and boiling points, higher relative atomic mass

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2
Q

state the word equation for the reaction of water and a group 1 metal (sodium)

A

sodium + water -> sodium hydroxide + hydrogen

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3
Q

state the word equation for the reaction of chlorine and a group 1 metal (sodium)

A

sodium + chlorine => sodium chloride

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4
Q

state the ionic equation for the reaction for the electrolysis of lead bromide at the anode and the cathode

A

anode :
Pb2+ + 2e- –> Pb
cathode:
2Br- –> Br2 + 2e-

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5
Q

why can ionic solids only be extracted in molten state?

A
  • when solid, ions are in a fixed position and cant move.

- in a liquid state the ions can move around freely to conduct electricity (needed for electrolysis)

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6
Q

name the ore aluminium is found naturally in and what compound is contained in it

A

bauxite

al2o3

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7
Q

give a disadvantage of extracting metals from their ore

A

it is very expensive as lots of energy is needed to melt the ore

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8
Q

why is cryolite added to bauxite when extracting aluminium

A
  • contains Al2O3 which has a v. high melting point.

- lowers the melting point, reducing the amount of energy needed to melt bauxite, reducing the cost of the process

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9
Q

describe the electrolysis of aluminium from its ore

A
  • the molten mixture contains free ions so conducts electricity
  • cathode attracts positive al+3 ions
  • they gain 3 electrons (reduced) and form neutral al atoms which sink to the bottom of the tank
  • anode attracts negative o2- ions
  • they lose 2 electrons (oxidised) making neutral oxygen atoms forming o2 molecules
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10
Q

state the ionic equation for aluminium extraction at the cathode

A

Al3+ + 3e- –> Al

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11
Q

state the ionic equation for aluminium extraction at the anode

A

2O2- –> O2 + 4e-

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12
Q

state the ionic equation for aluminium extraction

A

2AL2O3 –> 3O2 + 4AL

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13
Q

define reduction in terms of electrons and oxygen

A

reduction is a gain of electrons and a loss of oxygen

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14
Q

define oxidation in terms of electrons and oxygen

A

oxidation is a loss of electrons and a gain of oxygen

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15
Q

define a redox reaction

A

a reaction where reduction and oxidation happens at the same time

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16
Q

give an example of a redox reaction (general word equation)

A

acid + metal –> salt + hydrogen

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17
Q

recall the reactivity series

A
potassium
sodium   
lithium   
calcium   
magnesium   
aluminium   
zinc   
iron   
copper  
silver   
gold
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18
Q

how do you measure reactivity (method)

A
  • measure temp change of the reaction between the acid/water and metal over a set period of time.
  • the more reactive the metal, the higher the temp change
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19
Q

state the general word equation for the reaction between metal and water

A

metal + water –> metal hydroxide + hydrogen

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20
Q

state the general word equation for the reaction between group 1 metals and water (where X represents the metal)

A

2X + 2H2O –> 2XOH + H2

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21
Q

state the general word equation for the reaction between group 2 metals and water (where X represents the metal)

A

X + 2H2O –> X(OH)2 + H2

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22
Q

why is the relative atomic mass of chlorine a decimal?

A
  • chlorine exists as different isotopes (different numbers of neutrons) so the ar is an average.
  • takes into account the diff. masses and amounts of the isotopes that make up the element
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23
Q

what is the avragado constant?

A

6.02 x 10 to the power of 23 particles

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24
Q

state the formula to work out moles

A

moles = mass / mr

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25
Q

state the relationship between the amount of product formed and the limiting reactant

A

amount of product formed is directly proportionate to the limiting reactant (if you half the l.r the product halves)

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26
Q

state the formula to work out % mass

A

% mass = (ar x no. of atoms)/mr x100

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27
Q

state the formula to work out concentration of a solution. give units

A

conc. = mass / volume

g/dm3) (g) (dm3

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28
Q

state the methods for separating metals from metal oxides in terms of carbon and their reactivity

A
  • electrolysis for metals higher than carbon
  • ‘reduction using carbon’ for metals lower than carbon (as carbon can only take in oxygen from metals less reactive than itself)
29
Q

state general word equation for the reaction btwn an acid and metal and describe what happens in terms of electrons and reactivity

A

acid + metal –> salt + hydrogen

  • metal ion loses electrons forming positive ion
  • the higher the reactivity of the metal the more easily it reacts
30
Q

this is carbon:
12
C
6

what does the bigger and smaller number tell you about carbon

A
  • bigger number is mass number. how many protons and neutrons (12 in total)
  • smaller number is atomic number. tells you how many protons in the atom. protons are equal to number of electrons. 6 electrons and 6 protons

number of neturons = 12-6 = 6

31
Q

chemical formula for ammonia

A

NH3

32
Q

chemical formula for sulfuric acid

A

H2SO4

33
Q

nitrogen and hydrogen gas react together to form ammonia, write the balanced sybmol for this

A

N2+H2 ==> NH3

N2 + 3H2 ==> 2NH3

34
Q

name the 4 ways you can separte mixtures

A

distillation
fractional distillation
filtration
evaporation

35
Q

what does the group number and the period number tell you about an element

A
  • group number (columns) tells you how many electrons are in the outer shell of the element
  • period number (rows) tell you how many shells are occupied
36
Q

give the electronic structure of magnesium

A

2,8,2

37
Q

what is an ion

A

an atom that has lost or gained electrons

38
Q

give the formula for a lithium ion

A

Li+

39
Q

give the formula for a magnesium ion

A

Mg2+

40
Q

give the formula for an aluminium ion

A

Al3+

41
Q

give the formula for a nitrate ion

A

NO3-

42
Q

give the formula for a potassium ion

A

K+

43
Q

give the formula for a

chloride ion

A

Cl-

44
Q

give the formula for a nitride ion

A

N3-

45
Q

give the formula for a silver ion

A

Ag+

46
Q

give the formula for a iron(II) ion

A

Fe2+

47
Q

give the formula for a iodide ion

A

I-

48
Q

give the formula for a copper (II) ion

A

Cu+

49
Q

give the formula for a calcium ion

A

Ca2+

50
Q

give the formula for a lead (II) ion

A

Pb2+

51
Q

give the formula for a bromide ion

A

Br-

52
Q

give the formula for a sodium ion

A

Na+

53
Q

give the formula for a zinc ion

A

Zn2+

54
Q

give the formula for a flouride ion

A

F-

55
Q

give the formula for a oxide ion

A

O2-

56
Q

give the formula for a hydrogen ion

A

H+

57
Q

give the formula for an ammonium ion

A

NH4+

58
Q

give the formula for a barium ion

A

Ba2+

59
Q

give the formula for a copper (II) ion

A

Cu2+

60
Q

give the formula for an iron (III) ion

A

Fe3+

61
Q

give the formula for an aluminium ion

A

Al3+

62
Q

give the formula for a hydroxide ion

A

OH-

63
Q

give the formula for a nitrate ion

A

NO3-

64
Q

give the formula for a sulfide ion

A

S2-

65
Q

give the formula for a sulfate ion

A

SO4^2-

66
Q

give the formula for a carbonate ion

A

CO3^2-

67
Q

what is a compound

A

2 or more elements chemically bonded together in equal proportions

68
Q

what is a mixture

A

can be emements or compounds

may or may not be chemically bonded together