Autonomic Nervous System Drugs Flashcards Preview

Pharm I > Autonomic Nervous System Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Autonomic Nervous System Drugs Deck (57):
1

acetylcholine category?

parasympathomimetic

2

acetylcholine MOA?

muscarinic & nicotinic agonist

3

bethancehol category?

parasympathomimetic

4

bethanechol MOA?

muscarinic agonist

5

pilocarpine category?

parasympathomimetic

6

pilocarpine MOA?

muscarinic agonist

7

neostigmine category?

parasympathomimetic

8

neostigmine MOA?

reversible cholinesterase inhibitor

9

malathione category?

parasympathomimetic

10

malathione MOA?

irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor

11

atropine category?

parasympatholytic

12

atropine MOA?

muscarinic receptor antagonist

13

scopolamine category?

parasympatholytic

14

scopolamine MOA?

muscarinic receptor antagonist

15

ipratropium (atrovent) category?

parasympatholytic

16

ipratropium (atrovent) MOA?

muscarinic receptor antagonist

17

EPI category?

sympathomimetic

18

EPI MOA?

stimulates alpha & beta receptors

19

phenylephrine category?

sympathomimetic

20

phenylephrine MOA?

alpha 1 receptor agonist

21

clonidine (catapres) category?

sympathomimetic

22

clonidine (catapres) MOA?

alpha 2 receptor agonist

23

isoproterenol category?

sympathomimetic

24

isoproterenol MOA?

beta 1 and 2 receptor agonist

25

albuterol category?

sympathomimetic

26

albuterol MOA?

beta 2 receptor agonist

27

amphetamine category?

sympathomimetic

28

amphetamine MOA?

stimulates the release of NE and dopamine

29

phenelzine category?

sympathomimetic

30

phenelzine MOA?

MAO inhibitor

31

prazocin (minipress) category?

sympatholytic

32

prazocin (minipress) MOA?

alpha 1 receptor antagonist

33

propranolol category?

sympatholytic

34

propranolol MOA?

beta 1 & 2 receptor antagonist

35

metoprolol category?

sympatholytic

36

metoprolol MOA?

beta 1 receptor antagonist

37

reserpine category?

sympatholytic

38

reserpine MOA?

promotes release of NE and reduces re-uptake resulting in depletion of NE stores

39

distinguishing characteristics: Rapidly hydrolyzed by esterases; acts on both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors; quaternary ammonium group invokes a polarity
predicted actions: Short half-life (sec); diffuse activity; limited distribution
uses: local opthalmic use if other options aren't available

acetylcholine

40

distinguishing characteristics: Not metabolized by esterase enzymes; quaternary ammonium compound; particular affinity for the gut and bladder smooth muscle; oral administration is preferred
predicted actions: Longer half-life allows for distribution to areas of low perfusion; no CNS effect
uses: post-op gastroparesis, urinary retention, xerostomia, ocular diagnostics

bethanechol

41

distinguishing characteristics: Resistant to esterases; plant origin, tertiary ammonium compound; preferential activity on sweat glands
predicted actions: Will cause accomodation; may cause CNS effects at high plasma levels; duration of action is up to 8 hours
uses: glaucoma, xerostomia
SEs: diaphoresis

pilocarpine

42

distinguishing characteristics: Contains an ester group - slowly hydrolyzed (half-life is 1-2hrs); quaternary ammonium compound; poorly absorbed orally
predicted actions: Elevates Ach levels; causes both muscarinic and nicotinic stimulation
uses: miosis, glaucoma, myasthenia gravis, antidote to atropine, atonic gut or bladder

neostigmine

43

distinguishing characteristics: Not hydrolyzed by esterase enzymes; binds covalently to esterase enzymes; tertiary ammonium compound; rapidly absorbed through multiple routes
predicted actions: causes SLUD & other ANS activities, causes CNS distribution, chemical weapon
uses: insecticide, chemical warfare, not used medically
atropine is antidote

malathione

44

distinguishing characteristics: Resistant to hydrolysis by esterases; plant origin, tertiary ammonium compound; metabolized in liver with a half-life of 4hrs
predicted actions: Inhibits SLUD and other parasympathetic activities
uses: mydiasis, cycloplegia, antidote to parasympathomimetics, diarrhea, historical asthma tx

atropine

45

distinguishing characteristics: Greater CNS distribution than atropine; similar to atropine otherwise; plant source - Hyocyamus niger
predicted actions: Greater CNS effects/abuse potential than atropine; used less frequently
uses: Motion sickness

scopolamine

46

distinguishing characteristics: Quaternary ammonium compound; minimal inhibition of mucociliary clearance
predicted actions: No CNS effects; bronchodilation; limited mucous accumulation
muscarinic antagonist

ipratropium

47

distinguishing characteristics: Metabolized in many tissues; more Beta and Alpha activity; ineffective orally
predicated actions: Very short half-life (min)
uses: Cardiac emergencies; bronchospasm; adjunct to local anesthesia

ephinephrine

48

distinguishing characteristics: Limited access to CNS; effective orally
uses: Nasal decongestant; mydriatic
SEs: rebound congestion, increased peripheral resistance, reflex bradycardia

phenylephrine

49

distinguishing characteristics: Crosses BBB; prefers alpha receptors in the brainstem; long half-life and duration of action; diminish discharge from medular vasomotor center; effective orally
uses: Antihypertensive
SEs: Dry mouth; sedation; sexual dysfunction

clonidine

50

distinguishing characteristics: Metabolized by COMT; short duration of action
predicted actions: Tachycardia; bronchodilation; replaced by more selective beta agonists
uses: Cardiac arrest

isoproterenol

51

distinguishing characteristics: Limited CV effects; duration of action is several hours; effective orally or by inhalation
uses: Bronchodilator
SEs: weak and ocassional tachycardia, vasodilation

albuterol

52

distinguishing characteristics: Enters the CNS; Inhibits MAO
predicted actions: Vasoconstriction, cardiac stimulation, inc. BP; mydriasis - NE; CNS stimulation: euphoria, insomnia, anxiety, loss of appetite, hyperthermia
uses: narcolepsy, obesity, ADHD
highly abused, controlled substance

amphetamine

53

distinguishing characteristics: Readily absorbed; crosses BBB; increases synaptic catecholamine levels
uses: antidepressant

phenelzine

54

distinguishing characteristics: Highly protein bound (only 5% free); effective orally
uses: HTN

prazocin

55

distinguishing characteristics: Very lipid soluble; significant 1st pass metabolism; highly variable plasma levels
uses: Antihypertensive; antiangina; antiarrythmic

propranolol

56

distinguishing characteristics: Similar to propranolol
uses: Antihypertensive without risk to asthma and diabetic patients

metoprolol

57

distinguishing characteristics: Derived from plant; transitory sympathomimetic followed by prolonged sympatholytic effect; Antiquated for therapeutic use - more for research
uses: anti-HTN

reserpine