Axial Skeleton & Body Cavities Flashcards Preview

Anatomy 6511 Exam One Material > Axial Skeleton & Body Cavities > Flashcards

Flashcards in Axial Skeleton & Body Cavities Deck (102):
1

Skeletal system consists of what two elements/types of connective tissue?

Bone and Cartilage

2

What are the components of the axial skeleton? What are their purpose?

skull, ribs, vertebrae

-supporting axis of body, protection of vital organs

3

Name common characteristics for ALL bones

1. Serve as a reservoir for calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P)
2. Act as levers on which muscles act to produce movements
3. Are ‘containers’ for blood-producing cells (blood cells, stem cells)

4

Appendicular skeleton components

clavical, scapula, humerus (Upper extremity)

5

Bones are vascularized AND innervated, true or false?

TRUE

Also there is usually 1 nutrient artery per bone (blood supply, nutrition)

6

periosteum

fibrous connective tissue covering bones that can form NEW bone

-vascularized and innervated

7

Does bone stripped of its periosteum survive?

NO, while the bone does have sensory innervation, the periosteum is highly innervated and it is necessary for the survival of bone as a tissue.

8

Synovial joints

Bones separated by capsule with synovial cavity = articular cavity (moveable, associated with most of appendicular skeleton)

Movable joints
-encapsulated
-contain a articular cartilage (hyaline) covering articular surface
-synovial membrane that surrounds the articular space & produces synovial fluid to protect, cushion and nourish the joints.

-atlanto-axial joint (C1 C2) "NO joint"- primary joint for rotation of head

9

2 types of solid, immovable joints

Bones help together by connective tissue (less moveable, associated more with axial skeleton)

1. Fibrous (sutures, gomphosis, & syndesmosis)
2. Cartilaginous (synchondrosis and symphysis)

-lack the articular cavity and synovial membranes

-skull and the vertebral column, or the junction of teeth in the jaw

10

The skull is comprised of _#_ bones, excluding the ossicles of the ear

22

They are immobile.
They form the cranium.

11

The bones of the skull are attached to each other by sutures, with the exception of the _____

mandible (forms lower jaw)

12

viscerocranium or facial skeleton

components associated with the face (anterior lower part of the skull)

13

calvaria

upper domes portion that covers the cranial cavity containing the brain

14

How many vertebral regions?

Five vertebral regions with specific characteristics

1. Cervical (7: CI-CVII)
2. Thoracic (12: TI-TXII)
3. Lumbar (5: LI-LV)
4. Sacrum (5 fused sacral vertebrae I-V)
5. Coccyx (3-4 fused coccygeal vertebrae I-IV)* varies per person, generally why we dont talk about overall number of vertebrae in v. column

15

2 different types of curvatures of the normal spine/vertebral column

1. Primary curvatures (kyphosis)
2. secondary curvatures (lordosis)

16

primary curvatures

follow that of the original curvature seen in the developing embryo = this is concave anteriorly.

Primary curvatures are maintained in the thoracic (T) and sacral regions.

17

Secondary curvatures

concave posteriorly and form in the cervical (C) and lumbar regions (L) (lordosis - lumbar)

These secondary curvatures help to bring the center of gravity into a vertical line allowing better balance of body weight on the vertebral column (expending the least amount of muscular energy in our normal upright bipedal stance).

18

What is common among all typical vertebrae?

anteriorly positioned vertebral body and posteriorly positioned arch

19

Vertebral body

anterior and is the major weight-bearing component of the bone. It increases in size from C2 to L5. Adjacent vertebral bodies are separated by fibrocartilaginous discs

function: support of body weight

20

Vertebral arch

firmly anchored to the posterior surface of the vertebral body by two pedicles (lateral pillars of the arch)

-roof of the arch formed by right and left laminae, which fuse at the midline.

-vertebral arches are aligned to form lateral and posterior wall of the vertebral canal, (C1 to S5) containing the spinal cord

-The vertebral arch has a number of characteristic projections which serve as: attachments for muscles and ligaments, levers for the actions of muscles, and sites of articulation with adjacent vertebrae.

function: protect spinal cord

21

vertebral canal

C1-S5
contains the spinal cord and its protective membranes, together with proximal portions of spinal nerves, vasculature, connective tissue, and fat.

22

What do the characteristic projections of the vertebral arch serve as?

-attachments for muscles and ligaments
-levers for the actions of muscles
-sites of articulation with adjacent vertebrae.

23

Spinous process

projects posteriorly and generally inferiorly from the roof of the vertebral arch.

function: muscle (and ligament) attachment and movement

24

Transverse process

extends laterally from the region where the lamina meets a pedicle.

function: muscle attachment and movement

-thoracic region: articulate with ribs

25

Describe the rib elements associated with each thoracic vertebra

In thorax: costal elements are large and form ribs which articulate with the vertebral bodies and transverse processes

In other regions: rib elements are small incorporated into transverse processes

26

Articular processes

superior and inferior, same region as transverse (near pedicle)

lining up vertebrae and connecting them one above or below other in sequence vertically, articulation

function: restrict movements, limit rotation and motion of vertebral column (don't want to sever spinal cord or nerves)

27

There are 12 pairs of ribs that articulate with the thoracic vertebrae and terminate anteriorly in a costal cartilage.
7 pairs of ____ ribs
5 pairs of ____ ribs

12 pairs of ribs, 7 TRUE, 5 false

protect vital organs
vertebrae posteriorly
sternum anteriorly

28

floating ribs

11-12 lowest 2 pairs of false ribs

no anterior connection to the sternum; do not attach to sternum at all via cartilaginous connection

29

true ribs

1-7 attach to the sternum via own costal cartilages

30

false ribs

8-12 do NOT attach via own costal cartilages

31

A rib will articulate with which two parts if a vertebra? Which vertebrae (region) are especially designed to facilitate in these articulations?

vertebral body and transverse process

shape of thoracic vertebrae

32

Parts of rib

Head
Tubercle
Body
Costal groove

33

Head of rib

articulates with 2 vertebral bodies & 1 disc

34

Tubercle of rib

articulates with 1 transverse process

35

Body of rib

region of greatest curve = angle

largest portion of the shaft, thin, flat and curved, most markedly at the angle. Concave internal surface and costal groove.

36

Costal groove

formed by intercostal v., a. & n. (vein artery and nerve)

protects the N A & V of the costal space, where the V is most superior and the N is most inferior (VAN) and they all lie between the muscle layers.

37

The ___ of rib 5 articulates with the bodies of T4 & T5 vertebrae

head

38

____ of rib 5 articulates with transverse process of T5

tubercle

39

Which 4 ribs are atypical?

1st, 2nd, 11-12

40

1st rib

broadest, shortest and most sharply curved of the 7 true ribs
2 grooves superior surface for the subclavian vessels
2 grooves separated by the scalene tubercle and ridge for the scalene mm. attachment.

41

2nd rib

thinner, less curved and longer
– has two facets on head for articulation with T1 & T2 vertebrae

42

Ribs with only ONE facet on their heads

1, 11, 12

43

Ribs that are short with NO necks or tubercles

11 and 12

44

joint

site where 2 skeletal elements come together

45

2 joint types

Synovial vs Solid

46

How are synovial joints characterized?

described based on the their shape (the shape of the articular surface) and movement

-uniaxial (hinge joints) or multiaxial (ball and socket joints).

47

uniaxial joints

hinge joints (synovial)

48

multiaxial joints

ball and socket joints (synovial)

49

Plane joints

allow sliding or gliding of one bone surface over another

ex. acromioclavicular joint

50

Hinge joints

allow movement around one axis transversely through a joint

ex. elbow or humero-ulnar joint

{flexion-extension}

51

Pivot joint

all movement around a longitudinal axis

ex. atlanto-axial joint (C1-C2)

{rotation}

52

Bicondylar joint

allow movement in one axis with limited rotation around a second axis: formed by 2 convex condyles articulating with concave of flat surfaces

ex. knee

53

Condylar joints aka ellipsoid joints

allow movement around two axes that are at right angles to each other

ex. wrist

{flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and limited circumduction}

54

Saddle joints

allow movement around two axes that are a right angles with the articular surfaces saddle shaped

ex. caropmetacarpal joint of thumb

{flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction}

55

Ball and Socket joints

allow movement around multiple axes

ex. hip or shoulder joint

{flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction and rotation}

56

Fibrous joints

Sutures, Gomphoses, Syndesmoses

57

Cartilaginous joints

Synchondroses, Symphyses

58

sutures

only in the skull where adjacent bones are linked by a thin layer of fibrous connective tissue = sutural ligaments

59

gomphoses

only between teeth and adjacent bone. Short collagen fibers of the periodontal ligament run between the root of the tooth and the bony socket

60

syndesmoses

joints in which adjacent bones are linked by a (ligamentum flavum which connects adjacent vertebral laminae) OR (interosseous membrane which links the radius and ulna in the forearm)

61

ligamentum flavum

connects adjacent vertebral laminae in syndesmoses (fibrous)

62

interosseous membrane

links radius and ulna in forearm; syndesmoses (fibrous)

63

synchondroses

(cartilaginous)
where two ossification centers in a developing bone remain separated by a layer of cartilage

ex. growth plate between the head and shaft of developing long bones.

These joints allow bone growth but eventually completely ossify

64

symphyses

(cartilaginous)
where two separate bones are interconnected by cartilage (axial skeleton)

ex. intervertebral discs ( and the pubic symphysis

65

tendons

connective tissue connections between muscle and bone

66

ligaments

connective tissue connections between bones (bone to bone)

67

Abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the thoracic cavity by the _____; together they function in _____

diaphragm
Breathing

inhale : contraction of diaphragm (comes down) : relaxation of abdominal muscles : rib cage up and out

exhale : relaxation of diaphragm (comes up): contraction of abdominal muscles : rib cage down and in

68

Abdomen (abdominal wall)

Skeletal components:
-5 lumbar vertebrae
-Superior expanded parts of the pelvic bones
-Bony components of the inferior thoracic wall (costal margin, rib 12, & xiphoid process)

69

abdominal cavity

spans from just under the diaphragm superiorly to the pelvic inlet inferiorly

continous with pelvic cavity

lined with: peritoneum

70

pelvic cavity

inferior to the pelvic inlet (bony rim along the inner pelvis)

continuous with abdominal cavity

71

Thorax (thoracic wall)

1 sternum (breastbone)
12 thoracic vertebrae
12 pairs of ribs: intercostal space, costal cartilages, costal margin

The musculoskeletal wall of the thorax is flexible and consists of segmentally arranged vertebrae, ribs and muscles, & the sternum.

72

Superior thoracic aperture

anatomical thoracic inlet = communicates with the neck and UL & is bounded by T1 vertebra
-posteriorly, 1st pair of ribs & their costal cartilages laterally
-anteriorly by the superior border of the manubrium

73

Inferior thoracic aperture

anatomical thoracic outlet = diaphragm
thus separating the thoracic and abdominal cavities & bounded by:
-posteriorly: T12
-posterolaterally: 11th & 12th ribs
-anterolaterally: joined costal cartilages of ribs 7-10
-anteriorly: xiphisternal joint.

74

The thoracic wall is expandable because most ribs articulate with other components of the wall by true joints that allows movement, and because of the shape and orientation of the ribs.

TRUE

75

When a rib is elevated, it moves the anterior thoracic wall _____ relative to the posterior wall which is fixed.

FORWARD

The ribs posterior attachment is superior to its anterior attachment (sternum or costal cartilage).

76

The muscular diaphragm changes the ___ of the thoracic cavity as it contracts and relaxes (vertically).

Volume

77

Changes in the anterior, lateral, and vertical dimensions of the thoracic cavity are important for _______

breathing

78

Describe how the abdominal wall assists in breathing

During inspiration: it relaxes to accommodate the expansion of the thoracic cavity and the inferior displacement of the abdominal viscera during the contraction of the diaphragm

During expiration: it contracts to assist in elevating the domes of the diaphragm, thus reducing the thoracic volume.
Material can be expelled from the airway by forced expiration using the abdominal muscles, as in coughing or sneezing.

inspir=relax, expir=contract

79

valsalva maneauver

= Increased intra-abdominal pressure

diaphragm in fixed position, contraction of abdominal wall

is important in voiding the contents of the bladder and rectum, and in childbirth

80

Describe the peritoneum lining the abdominopelvic cavity

an epithethial-like single layer of cells (the mesothelium) together with a supportive layer of connective tissue

The peritoneum reflects off the abdominal wall to become a component of the mesenteries that suspend the viscera

81

parietal peritoneum

lines abdominal wall

82

visceral peritoneum

covers the suspended organs (viscera)

83

intraperitoneal structures

suspended in mesenteries

84

retroperitoneal structures

lie between the parietal peritoneum and the abdominal wall

kidneys, aorta

85

pleura

lines thoracic cavity
-an epithethial-like single layer of cells (the mesothelium) together with a supportive layer of connective tissue.

reflects off the thoracic wall to line the viscera

86

Parietal pleura

lines the pleural cavities (2), each separately.

87

Visceral pleura

reflects from the medial wall and onto the surface of the organs (viscera) = lungs

The visceral pleura is adherent to the lung

88

What are the several cavities housed by the skull?

-cranial vault = cranial cavity – houses the brain
-nasal cavities (2): nasal sinuses
-oral cavity:
orbit (2) = eye socket
middle & inner ear cavities

89

axis

c2 = CII
-Dens or odontoid process

90

atlas

c1 = CI
-not really a body, anterior arch and posterior arch

91

Which nerves run through foramen magnum?

spinal cord, vertebral arteries, anterior and posterior spinal arteries, spinal accessory nerve

92

When are the sacral vertebrae (5) fused completely?

about age 30, begins in adolescence

93

Cervical vertebrae

-some have two spinous processes (bifid)
-transverse process: has foramen tranversaria
(vertebral artery, supplies posterior blood supply TO the brain; also autonomic innervation (Sympathetic))
-triangular shape vertebral canal
-smaller vertebral body

94

Every blood vessel in the body has ______ innervation

sympathetic

95

Thoracic vertebrae

"Giraffe"
-very long spinous processes with inferior orientation
-slightly larger vertebral body
-smaller vertebral body
-articulation for ribs, longer lateral processes to facilitate costal or rib articulation
-smaller/more narrow foramen

96

Lumbar vertebrae

Foramen larger (again): new afferents coming in from lower extremity/body
-cord enlarged in this region because more cell bodies taking up more space for efferents as well
-very thick anterior vertebral body (support weight above)
-lateral processes: smaller, more squared compared to both superior processes
-have more space for rotation left to right (mobility)

97

if I have a sympathetic nerve on a blood vessel, it has to be ______

postganglionic/postsynaptic

98

thoracic cavity

contains all the ribs, sternum, and the vertebral common; heart and vasculature (inferior vena cava, descending aorta, esophagus)

bounded by thoracic inlet (superior thoracic aperture)

99

diaphragm

anterior (xyphoid process of sternum) and posterior (T12) levels very different and distinct

relaxed: above xyphoid process

100

pleural cavity

small cavity, between parietal and visceral pleura in thoracic cavity, contains serous fluid to reduce friction

101

cranial cavity

contains brain
-covered by meninges

102

ASIS

bony landmark
anterior superior iliac spine
(anterior hip bone)