B1- Cell Biology Flashcards Preview

Biology AQA GCSE > B1- Cell Biology > Flashcards

Flashcards in B1- Cell Biology Deck (48):
1

What kind of cell is a plant and animal cell

Eukaryotic

2

What is the role of the nucleus

Contains genetic material

3

What is the role of the cytoplasm

Where most chemical reactions take place

4

What is the role of the cells membrane

Controls what goes in and out of the the cell

5

What is the role of mitochondria

Aerobic respiration

6

What is the role of ribosome

Protein synthesis

7

What is the role of the cell wall and what is it made out of

Supports and strengthens cell made of cellulose

8

What is the role of the vacuole

Contains cell sap

9

What’s is the role of a chloroplast

Where photosynthesis occurs

10

What does a bacterium contain

Cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, plasmids

11

What is the role of plasmids

Small ring of DNA

12

Why don’t bacterium contain chloroplast or mitochondria

They are too big to fit inside

13

What are the two types of microscope

Electron and light

14

What is the magnification equation

Magnification=image size/real size

15

Evaluate the use of light microscopes against electron microscopes

Electron microscopes have a higher magnifications and resolution but they are more expensive and hard to transport also u have to be trained to use one unlike light microscope

16

How do u prepare a slide

1. add a drop of water
2. Add specimen stained with iodine
3. Place a cover slip on top

17

Why do u stain it

To highlight objects that are colourless

18

What should a diagram of ur observation look like

1. Takes up at least half the space
2. Drawn with clear unbroken lines
3. Magnification
4. Title
5. Labelled

19

Why do cells differentiate

To become specialised

20

What is an undifferentiated cell called

Stem cell

21

How is a sperm specialised

Long tail
Streamlined head
Lot of mitochondria
Enzymes in its head to digest through eggs cell membrane

22

How is a nerve cell specialised

Long axon
Have branched connections
Form a network throughout the body

23

How is a muscle specialised

Long
Lots of mitochondria

24

How is a root hair specialised

Large surface area

25

What do chromosomes contain

Genetic information

26

What are chromosome

Coiled up lengths of DNA

27

What is mitosis

Cell division for growth and repair

28

What r they steps of mitosis

1. Duplicates it’s DNA
2. Chromosomes line up at the centre of the cell
3. Membranes form around each of the sets of chromosomes
4. Cytoplasm and cell membrane divide

29

What is produced from mitosis

Two identical daughter cells

30

What’s binary fission

Prokaryotic cells replicating

31

What r the steps of binary fission

1. DNA and plasmids replicate
2. DNA strands move to opposite ends of the cell
3. Cytoplasm divides and new Cell walls form
4. Two daughter cells produced

32

What are the correct conditions for bacteria to divide

Warm
Lots of nutrients

33

How do u make an agar plate

1. Pour hot agar jelly in a Petri dish
2. Transfer microorganisms but using a inoculating loop
3. Then seal

34

Why are bacteria not kept above 25 degrees in schools

So no harmful pathogens can be grown

35

How do u prevent contamination

Pass inoculating loop through flame
Lightly tape lid on Petri dish
Store upside down so no condensation falls on lid

36

Where r stem cells found

Human embryos and bone marrow

37

What is good about embryonic stem cells

They ca turn into any type of cell

38

What is bad about adult stem cells

Can only turn into specific cells

39

What r the risks of stem cell growth

Could get contaminated with a virus which could be passed on to the patient

40

What is therapeutic cloning

Where an embryo could be made to have the same genetic material as the Patient so stem cells produced from it wouldnt be rejected

41

Why r some people against it

Could be killing potential life

42

Where r stem called found in plants

Meristems

43

What can plant stem cells be used for

Producing clones of plants

44

What is diffusion

The net movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration passively down the concentration gradient

45

The bigger the concentration gradient _______

The faster the rate of diffusion

46

A higher temp will give a ____ diffusion rate as particles have more _____ so move faster

Faster
Energy

47

_______ molecules pass through membranes

Small

48

What’s osmosis

Net movement of molecules from a high concentration to low concentration through a partially permeable membrane in water