Flashcards in B1 Topic 3 - Inter-relationships Deck (21)
In general, what do drugs do to the body?
Drugs change the way in which chemical react in the body (mostly in the central nervous system) and in turn, affect the way the body behaves.
What are the four main types of drugs and how do they affect an individual? Give an example for each.
Depressants - decrease activity of the brain, slow response in the central nervous system, slow reactions, impair judgement. E.g. Alcohol
Stimulants - increase activity in the brain by increasing number of neurotransmitters at the synapses, increase reactions, make you feel awake and alert. E.g. Nicotine, caffeine
Analgesics or Painkillers - decrease feeling of pain, some of these drugs work by blocking the nerve impulses to the brain. E.g. Morphine, other narcotics
Hallucinogens - distort what is seen and heard by altering pathways that impulses travel along. E.g. LSD
How does smoking affect the body?
Tobacco smoke contains carbon monoxide which combines with haemoglobin, meaning that blood can not transport as much oxygen.
The tar in cigarettes also contains carcinogens which can lead to lung cancer.
Nicotine is addictive.
How does alcohol affect the body in the short- and long-term?
Alcohol is a poison that the liver usually breaks down, but frequent heavy drinking can damage and kill liver cells, forming scar tissue which blocks blood flow. This is known as cirrhosis.
Toxic substances can build up and damage the rest of the body
Too much drinking can also lead to brain damage
Explain the six ways in which pathogens can be spread.
Water - drinking or bathing in dirty water. E.g. Cholera
Food - eating contaminated food. E.g. Salmonella
Air - carried in droplets produced from coughs or sneezes. E.g. Influenza virus
Contact - touching contaminated surface. E.g. Athletes foot
Body fluids - spread by body fluids. E.g. HIV virus
Animal vectors - vectors are animals that spread disease. E.g. Anopheles mosquito transmits malaria, houseflies transmit dysentery
What are the physical barriers on the body against pathogens? Explain how they work.
If it gets damaged, blood clots quickly to seal cuts and keep microorganisms out.
Respiratory tract lined with cilia cells and mucus to catch dust and bacteria before it enters the body. Cilia push the mucus away from the lungs.
What are the chemical barriers on the body against pathogens? Explain how they work.
Eyes produce lysozyme which kills bacteria on the eye.
Bacteria that might be on food usually are killed by the hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
Define an antiseptic.
A chemical used outside the body to stop diseases from spreading. They are used to clean wounds and on surfaces. Antiseptics prevent infection rather than treat it.
Define an antibiotic.
Antibiotics are drugs that are used inside the body to treat patients who are already infected with a bacteria or fungus. They don't treat viruses.
What are the two types of antibiotics and what do they do?
Antibacterials are used to kill bacteria or to stop them from growing. E.g. Penicillin. Bacteria can develop resistance to antibacterials
Antifungals are used to either kill fungal infection or stop them from growing.
How do bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics?
Bacteria can mutate and become resistant to an antibiotic. When an antibiotic is used, the non-resistant strain will be killed leaving only resistant bacteria. These will survive and create a new resistant population. This happens when doctors over-prescribe antibiotics or when patients don't finish a course.
Describe the steps of how the sun's energy gets to a fox.
Plants convert light energy into glucose. Rabbit eats plant and gets some of its energy. The rabbit uses this energy to grow, move, generate heat, etc. and some is stored in the body. A fox then eats the rabbit and gets an even small percentage of its energy. At each level, energy is used by the organisms and can therefore not be passed on to the next trophic level.
Biomass is how much the creatures at each level of a food chain would weigh if you put them together.
What is a parasite.
Parasites live in or on a host, taking what they need to survive without giving anything back in return. They usually harm the host in the process.
Give a few examples of parasitic animals and plants.
What is a mutualistic relationship.
Mutualism is where both organisms benefit from the relationship.
Give some examples of mutualistic animals and plants.
Oxpeckers and buffalo
Cleaner fish and larger fish
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria and legume plants
Chemo-synthetic bacteria and giant tube worms
What is eutrophication?
When too much fertiliser is used on a field, it can run into nearby rivers and lakes, causing excess growth of algae. Other plants start to die due to competition from the algae. Microbes start to grow on the dead plants. These microorganisms use up all of the oxygen in the water and cause fish and other aquatic animals to die.
Name some indicator species for air pollution and water pollution.
Air - lichen and blackspot fungi on rose leaves are very sensitive to sulphur dioxide and only live in areas with clean air
Water - stonefly larvae and freshwater shrimp are sensitive to the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water and therefore indicate clean water. Sludge worms and blood worms on the other hand, are adapted to polluted water and large populations indicate polluted water.
Starting with CO2 in the atmosphere, state the steps of the carbon cycle.
1. Photosynthesis in plants takes the carbon dioxide from the air and converts it into carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
2. Animals and other organisms that eat plants take in the carbon and also store it in their bodies.
3. Respiration in both animals and plants puts the CO2 back into the atmosphere.
4. When organisms die, bacteria and fungi break them down, releasing CO2 from respiration.
5. When fossil fuels are burnt, CO2 is also released back into the atmosphere.