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Urry (2015)
Greenbelt vs Housing

- number new homes on greenbelt England x5 past 5 years
- England 14 greenbelts, covering 13% land
- claim need 250,000 homes build year solve housing crisis
- 37% housing allocations areas of outstanding natural beauty


Valuation Ecosystems CS

Mantadia National Park, Madagascar
- forests benefit farmers as act buffer floods


UN (2010)

Recognised water as a human right - need minimum 50l safe and affordable water
(world produces enough calories for everyone in terms food, problem inequity)


Virtual Water Examples

Tea = 28l per cup (farming, packaging, brewing - mostly green water)
Coffee = 136l a cup (grow, harvest, process, wash, roast - 5x water as tea, lot Green water grow crop, 7l grey water per cup)
Milk = 915l per 1l
- rainfall on pasture, irrigation and stock drinking water


Agricultural Improvements CS

Green Revolution 1940-60s
- fertiliser, pesticide, seeds
- rice yield 10x traditional varieties
- successful India, China
- loss genetic diversity India 30,000 to 10 species rice
- 70,000 to 30 crops globally


Food and Health Stats

- 925mn people undernourished (800mn developing world)
- 2008 500mn adults obese
- USA 12% food insecure, 4% hunger vs 65% overweight


Carrington (2018) Meat

- need reduce meat-eating to avoid climate destruction
- western countries beef consumption needs to fall by 90%


Hoekstra and Mekonnen (2012)
Water footprint

- Agricultural production 92% global annual average WF, industrial 4.7%, domestic 3.8%
- global average consumer WF 1,385 m3/y vs US 2,842
- problem global freshwater resources - govs need focus not just on meeting national demand, but on global patterns eg. not consider import/export water-intense commodities - important understand WF country
- China, India and US combined = 38% global WF production - china and US largest WFs terms industry
- Virtual water exporters = US, China, India, Brazil, Argentina vs importers = US, Japan, Germany, UK, China
- China highest WF consumption world - per capita more useful as large pop - UK and US higher - US high due to meat consumption - developed higher WF in general
- large external WF if depend freshwater resource import eg. Malta water-scares
- limitations = only traces one step eg. imported from, assume commodity made there; also low estimate grey water as hard track pollution eg. of fertilisers


Guardian (2010)
GB and Peru

- Asparagus grown in Peru, sold UK problem water footprint
- asparagus production Ica Valley (desert = constant irrigation needed) depleting water resources = small farms / families wells run dry + water to main city under threat - export is unsustainable
- water table falling dramatically from 2002 when extraction overtook replenishment - 8m year
- UK world's 6th largest importer virtual water (high-value food imports - asparagus typical, market only exist since 90s but consumes 6.5mn kilos year)
- Peru asparagus export earns $450mn year (95% from ica valley)
- 2 wells serving 18,500 people already dry Valley - company water use = problems locals
- companies face rising water costs due over abstraction = deepening wells or buying old ones - often companies claim farms use water carelessly vs companies efficient
- CC make water shortages worse glaciers shrink feed river
- WB policy to promote export as developing policy - how much actually help?
- village in valley houses get water for 1 hour 3x week - 2007 EQ worsened problem w damaged infrastructure - family 10l per person per day


Van Huis et al (2013)
Cooporations control world food production

- monopolies corporations in food sector - increasingly political power - N companies benefit disadvantage S eg. Vietnamese aquaculture consumers pay $10 kilo fish, farmer gets $1 - production costs = 10cents
- 1996 10 biggest seed companies 30% market, now 3 largest over 50%
- produce 1kg meat needs 3 kilos grain / soya - could feed extra 3.5bn people - over 90% soya production goes to animal feed, soyabean cultivation linked forest destruction S america + 2/3 nitrous oxides emissions from feed-based livestock farming
- factory farming!
- 75% all crop plant varieties lost C20th - Philippines over 3,000 rice varieties, now 2 green rev
- Monsanto market leader seeds (US) - producer pesticide, agent organic Vietnam, GM soya - controls 90% GM seed market
- Yara market leader fertiliser (Norway) - 50 countries operates, 7600 employees
- Walmart bigger revenue GNP Sweden


Houses of Parliament (2011)
Water in Production of products

- global water demand outstrip supply 40% 2030
- virtual water = 95% human water use (86% food)
- focus water withdrawal vs water consumption - companies may put back
- water scarcity impacts 1 in 3 globally
- Aral Sea - reduced volume 80% since 1960 (cotton)
- govs need calculate virtual water use + understand to reduce - need recognise interdependence in water strategies
- consumer choice as tool to manage water consumption eg. labels on products (but need consumer understanding to work)
- need better cooperation in supply chain reduce water - social responsibility businesses to be sustainable - UN CEO Water Mandate - M&S water sustainability plan 2007 make chain more sustainable - eg. UK products, Kenyan flowers
- need tighter water management in agriculture


Houses of Parliament (2011)

- EU little approval GM - regulation commercial crops EU level - caution to new tech GM - GMOs undergo EU risk assessments then decide on application - only 1 GM crop licensed for cultivation past 13 years
- but EU does import GM eg. UK livestock depends soy for feed, 90% from Brazil / Argentina where 69%/99% production was GM 2009 - hard to separate for EU imports
- 2050 food demand may rise 70%
- GM not natural - concern spread unnatural genes - need separation mechanisms
- 2010 GM crops grown 29 countries
- biodiversity loss, land, water use, GHG emissions, pesticide use (risk resilience weeds)
- can increase yields non-GM crop breeding like selective breeding - eg. MAS (Marker Assisted Selection)
- GM largely research phase, patents controversial


Arid Flooding CS

Egypt Floods (torrential rain) - Cairo - happens annually (2015/6)
- 22 killed + 72 injured
- gov give £50mn for flood-hit areas


UNESCO (2003)

Groundwater is the worlds most extracted raw material


Rodell et al (2009)
Indian Groundwater stocks shrinking

- NW India water shortage
- 2 satellites to determine GW reserves - 1m decline water table year - Delhi GW depleting 10x fast
- India 20% pop, 4% water globe
- A net loss of 109 cubic km of water (109 billion tonnes) from Aug 2002 to Oct 2008 (double the capacity of India’s largest surface-water reservoir- the Upper Wainganga)
- Rainfall during the study period was close to long-term climatic mean so depletion unlikely to be due to unusual dryness or variability
- Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana have 114 million people, and ~500 mm/yr rainfall (just less than London) with pronounced seasonal and regional differences
- Crop irrigation accounts for 95% of groundwater consumption (rice)


Overabstraction CS
World Meteorological Organisation (2014)

The Aral Sea
- drained / diverted soviet cotton
- over 60% loss water 30 years
- saltwater intrusion
- 2013 sea split
- 10% of former glory
- World Bank and Kazakhstan work to regain sea - over 300 square miles recovered - fish into local markets again - 8-mile dike to raise sea level
- future lies transboundary cooperation


Drought and Water Scarcity CS

- since 1980 number droughts increased and becoming more severe costing 100bn euros past 30 years
- water scarcity increasing - 11% population and 17% EU territory affected up to 2007
- CC worsen problem


Water Scarcity / Stress Stats (UN 2006/7)

- 1/5 worlds population live areas physical scarcity
- 1/4 face economic water shortage
- 2025 1.8bn people live areas absolute water scarcity
- 30 countries water stressed
- 20 absolute water scarcity (Israel and Jordan well below this)
- 2/3 in water stressed conditions


Drought and Solution CS

South Africa, Cape Town Drought
- 3 years drought 2013 = 1,100mm to 2016 = 500mm
- 4 mn people fed dams
- heavily invested water infrastructure
- new investments for 2020 - desalination plants, wastewater treatment units, groundwater extraction projects
- shock people into behaviour change "50l a day keeps day zero away"
- reduced consumption (2015 1.2bn l day population vs 2018 500l) - behaviour change and suburban restrictions - 50l day per person (25l in informal settlements already)
- increased supply using grey water, private boreholes, storage tanks, bottled water etc.
- maps monitoring peoples water use - neighbours police + info online to change behaviour
- drought due CC tripled - but not sole cause


Armstrong (2006)

- need clear understanding to discuss and resolve issues water management
- water ethic similar to Leopold's land ethic - water centre web life in landscape
- right if preserves or enhances water's ability to sustain life, wrong if decreases that ability


Water Marketed or not CS

- Nestle not human right, needs privatised
- people have to work to afford water
- NGO public right vs private - water as another foodstuff (CEO priority enterprise)
- week w/o water horrendous effects - water necessary


Groenfeldt and Schmidt (2013)
Approaches to water governance

- Management
- Institutional (command-and-control)
- Sustainable (ecosystems approach)
- Values (ethics)


Marris (2016)

- Water scarcity impacts 4bn people year (experience at least month year) + just under 4bn severe water scarcity (twice as much water withdrawn as sustainable at least one month year) - if look at annually this becomes 1.7 and 3.1bn
- Klamath River N California water disputes - irrigation (ranchers/farmers), native tribes, environmentalists, hunters/anglers want leave water - based monthly timescale water is scarce (not when data annual as dry 3 months year) - overuse caused salmon deaths, reduce food, cholera - stakeholders need compromise


European Parliament Briefing (2016) European Union

Water in Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
- Palestinian pop west bank and Gaza growing = more demand water - Israel controls 80% water west bank + Gaza military conflict = 2014 1mn residents no water
- Middle East need water cooperation - 2015 Israel Jordon deal shared management freshwater resources
- EU institutions to encourage water relations Israel and neighbours - EuropeAid European Commission gave 55.4mn euros water and sanitation projects Palestinians
- Jordon River Valley depletion with Palestinans, Jordanians and Israelis use
- Israelis unlimited running water year round vs palestinians little + west bank / gaza desertification and soil degradation
- Lake Tiberias Israel diverts 329mn cubic meters water from Jordan with National Water Carrier infrastructure; Mountain Aquifer threatened GW pollution and Coastal Aquifer 2012 GW levels fallen below sea level = saltwater intrusion
- West Bank depend Mountain Aquifer - 1/3 water lost ageing infrastructure + 1967 Israel took control water so Palestinians must purchase from them - Palestinians 73l day + some areas full military control West Bank 20l day - 200,000 people west bank no connection water + pay 400% more per litre
- Gaza rely coastal aquifer - 90-95% water unfit consumption - aquifer exhausted 2020 - 50% households not connected sewage system, treatment plants destroyed conflict
- 1995 Oslo Interim Accord - Israel supposed recognise Palestinian water rights - Blockade Gaza strip from 2007


Human Pressures on Freshwater Systems CS

Colorado River, US/Mexico
- Rich Wetlands
- 1950s only 10% river reaches Mexico (abstraction and river alterations) - lack water to outlet / estuary = wetland reduce 250,000 hectares to 50,000 (even low 5,000)
- 30mn people depend water
- Hoover Dam - river flow not natural
- loss native fish
- 2012 Mexico + US agreement minute 319 - 5 year programme release water to Mexican delta for env purposes (renewed 2017)


Habitat Alteration x4 EGs

- Deforestation Madagascar
- Amazon Basin wetlands - 80% native vegetation remains, 60% plateau now cropland - biodiversity loss, burning, tourism, water pollution
- San Francisco built on estuary - 1961 90% wetlands gone - urbanisation
- London rivers built over


Invasive Species

Nile Perch in Lake Victoria, Africa
- up to 2m length, not native, eat small fish idea so humans eat big fish
- almost no native species left and also eat each other
- 2003 NP sales EU 170mn euros
- Change livelihoods - no longer traditional fishing - trawlers
- eutrophication lake



- 20% freshwater fish vulnerable, endangered or extinct
- all inland fisheries signs exploitations
- Beluga 90% decline population
- European eel 99% decline European stock since 80s



Thames River, London
- great stink 1858 (disbanded parliament)
- waste Thames - 1950 Thames upper length biologically dead
- Recovery 60s sewage infrastructure (strained now pop increase)
- eutrophication
- 1974 first fish


River Restoration x2 CS

Los Angeles River
- turned into concrete drain 1940s to prevent flooding (1938 bad flood)
- channelisation - remove meanders
- LA River revitalisation cooperation - reconnect civilians w river
- limited development space, need use floodplain, banks
Pasig River, Philippines
- 25km river Manila choked w pollution by urban underclass
- river declared officially dead - slow clean up
- river a community garbage dump
- improvements eg. septic systems, embankments, water filtration
- state funded river barriers patrol
- long time and expensive to clean
- need change attitudes to maintain clean up


Invasive Species Lakes CS

- Zebra mussels displace native in Great Lakes N US/Canada
- then Quagga mussels introduced, outcompete Zebra
- Lake Michigan 98% mussels Zebra 2000 now 97% Quagga 2005


Wetland Restoration

Tomago Wetlands Restoration Project
- Australia
- reinstated 400 hectares wetland
- acid sulphate soil danger so reduction salt marsh - salt water to freshwater
- water research lab monitor system
- adaptive management
- hard restore - need balance water supply
- expensive


Forest Stats (UNEP)

- forests cover 30% land use
- 1990-2010 8.3mn hectares year deforested
- 500mn forest dependent people


Hansen et al (2013)

Forest Loss Indonesia
- Most forest turned into plantations
- lost 25% forest cover last 25 years
- 2017 60% drop forest cover loss
- agricultural deforestation
- since 95 decrease deforestation - but still high
- illegal logging hard monitor
- starting get worse again 2017 13.7% increase


International Treaties 2

Paris 2016
- USA withdraw 2017 Trump
- reduce emissions temp rise less 2% pre-industrial level
- 1.5 digress
- zero emissions 2050
- CDM to SDM (sustainable development mechanisms)



Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation
- incentives developing protect forests
- eg. Guyana and Norway - N paid G manage forests - N carbon credits


Problem of Definitions
FAO (2000)

- global estimate forest area increase 300mn hectares 1990-2000 changing definition
- height 7 to 5m
- min area 1 to 0.5ha


Houses of Parliament (2016)

- Rewilding aims restore natural processes, reducing need human management of land. 70% UK land farmed and 3bn euros year spent env management farmland in EU.
- concern if it would exclude people from natural spaces. also is it possible to restore previous ecosystems eg. holocene. hard to know consequences as rewilding projects scarce - 13 in UK
- reduced management alone can restore nature eg. Chernobyl exclusion zone post 1986
- eg. re meander rivers
- Benefits - reduced management cost (public spending SSSIs £85 hectare year), biodiversity, recreation (abandoned crop fields Hertfordshire now woodlands; white tailed eagles Scotland £5mn year tourist Isle Mull); flood prevention / water qual eg. wetland restoration; GHG emissions (agriculture contributes 9% UK GHG emissions 12% globally) + carbon sinks
- Knepp wildland project at knepp castle estate Sussex 2001 rewilding - heavy clay soils hard farmers make profit - instead natural with free roaming herds - ecotourism £120,000 turnover first year £19,000 profit
- Risks - unpredictable outcomes (eg. species decline UK 1 in 5 butterfly species in habitats due to traditional agricultural practices), consequences animal reintroductions, stakeholder conflict


WWF (2007)
Interbasin water transfers and water shortages

- challenge ensuring adequate water humans whilst having healthy freshwater ecosystems. one mode even distribution water move it from areas surplus to deficit -IBTs can solve water issues supply but high cost, econ risk, interrupt connectivity river systems, disrupt fish migrations, alter natural flows, cause salinisation, water table lowering
- eg. Aral Sea!
- Tagus-Segura Transfer Spain - 286km pipeline connecting 3 spanish river basins 1978 aim solve deficit and supply 147,000 hectares irrigation + 76 municipalities - 2 damns upper Tagus - led to unsustainable water use, unmonitored irrigation land expansion, illegal boreholes, pollution, fish species endangered
- Proposed IBT Peru - contract signed 2004 - Olmos transfer project (olmos receive from huancabamba basin) - $185mn to do - for energy supply and irrigation but caused logging for irrigation lands, ecosystem damage, loss communal land w no rights farmers, 200 people relocated donating basin
- need consider alternatives - reduce water demands (Queensland Australia encourage water efficient devices, education campaigns to raise awareness), recycle waste water, rainwater harvesting, desalination


Jeffries (2013)
Water fears - floods, droughts

- June 2012 huge storm Newcastle (cost Tyneside £100mn) - extreme event wettest year England since records began 1854 in a year starting w 4 months drought. 2012 UK 1 in 100 year flood events.
- 2012 driest winter spain 20 years, heat-wave fish death US rivers, Russia drought etc. - weather extremes increasing - CC?
- problem of extreme events and protection humans vs conservation aquatic ecosystems - Environment Agency England recognises increased risk droughts / floods and need resilience water scarcity / excess - there are opportunities policy benefit wildlife but fear and complex politics - water fear impacting short-term response
- Need improve understanding river and wetland management


Michalak et al (2013)

- 2011 Lake Erie largest harmful algal bloom recorded history - long-term trends increased phosphorus lake + meteorological conditions 2011
- anthropogenic nutrient loading - 60s/70s algal blooms, hypoxia - US + Canada Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement lower phosphorus but worsening since 90s
- 2011 uncommonly warm - 2010 ideal conditions harvest = prep next year lot fertiliser - then 2011 spring storm runoff events - essentially trends agricultural nutrient management practise and weather contribute huge 2011 bloom
- algal bloom 5,000km 2
- 2011 weak lake circulation
- need change agricultural practise w policy intervention - pos increased fertiliser cost


WWF (2004)
Econ Value Wetlands

- wetlands provide goods/services - food, freshwater, water treatment, erosion control - high econ value - global wetlands worth $3.4bn year (conservative) - Ramsar estimate at $70bn year - Costanza et al 1997 $4.8 trillion
- coastal, inland and man-made wetlands. regulatory functions eg. recycle nutrients, erosion control - home over 40% worlds species - Australia wetlands cultural value aboriginal owners ceremonies
- Pantanal, Brazil biggest freshwater wetland (138,000km2) - part of it UN World Heritage Site - econ value $15,644.09mn year
- need recognised for value, need ecosystem approach
- threats eg. overexploitation, built over - since 1900 50% gone - loss everglades US Florida - 95% decrease wading bird populations, 68 threatened species, restoration plan underway cost $7.8bn
- 1975 RAMSAR (2003 138 parties)


Malhli et al (2008)
Amazon deforestation and CC

- Amazon forests 1/4 world's species
- forest clearance cattle expansion and soybean production - 80% deforestation in Brazil - 70% cattle ranching (despite covers 9 nations) - 2004 27,400km2 deforestation year
- 0.25 degrees warming decade - expected 3.3 degree rise this century
- influence climate - deforestation pos feedback CC - also reduces rainfall - removal 30-40% forest push drier climate - also impacts albedo
- zone amazon highest drought risk SE and E (also zone most active deforestation) - intact more resilient drying
- deforestation could grow roads, timber, soyabean, beef, biofuel demand - current plans could reduce 5.4mn km2 to 3.2mn km2 2050 (53% original)
- drought amazon likely CC - danger drier climate and less resilience with convert to agricultural land - challenge to conserve with globalisation


Schiermeir (2012)

- 1990 global emissions 22.7bn tonnes CO2, 1997 24.4, 2011 33.9
- 1997 Kyoto protocol first pact to commit rich countries to reducing GHG emissions
- problems eg. US signed not ratify due China, pulled out
- 37 countries pledged reduce emissions from 1990 levels 5% 2008-12 - target met collectively but most cuts deindustrialization and done little curb global problem - global emissions 50% increase since 1990
- need learn from future policy
- rushed and borrowed old CW treaties eg. replace nuclear warheads with CO2
- only developed climate responsibilities, developing not included
- included can buy emissions allotments from other nations or invest low-carbon tech developing world
- CO2 emissions must stay below 1,000bn tonnes 2000-2050 75% chance contain temp rise 2 degrees (2000-2012 already 450bn)
- cautious first step
- produced cap-and-trade systems, CDM


Sabogal (2015)

Guyana and Brazil
- community forest monitoring can help REDD+
- local knowledge systems and low cost - help with policies on ground
- enhances natural resource management
- problem how to move from community schemes site level to national REDD+ approach
CS1 - Brazil REDD+ programme Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve - pilot community monitoring project with use smart phone tech - inform governance systems forest - 77% aware payment for ecosystem services programme, 16% uptake - monitoring linked historical relations w gov area - mistrust communities
CS2 - Guyana community forest monitoring systems
- 2009 bilateral agreement Guyana and Norway REDD+ finance mechanism for low carbon dev strategy. community MRV project with smartphones 16 indigenous villages. participatory, bottom-up. understand local priorities forest change determinates - helped gov understand local drivers forest change, role traditional agriculture and clarified uncertainties remote sensing imagery by ground observations. communities understand land use decisions pressures forests.


Costanza et al (2017)
Ecosystem Services

- weakness mainstream econ approaches to valuation - change needed sustainable future
- natural systems support human wellbeing
- ecological economics
- 1997 costanza - estimation biosphere value $16-54 trillion higher GDP globally time - ecosystem services more important to human wellbeing than conventional econ thinking gave credit - only value services can be marketed - eg. regulation etc value ignored
- ecosystem processes vs services (wellbeing humans)
- ecosystem services = anthropocentric or utilitarian view of nature
- provisioning, regulation, cultural and supporting services
- direct vs indirect contributions human wellbeing - hard determine what specific ecosystem functions contribute
- even just listing all services from ecosystems can help with policy recognition
- need protect nature, recognise intrinsic value - nature more valuable than anything else
- econ narrow field of a ecosystem service, just human benefit - def too narrow! eg. need sustainability for wellbeing
- econ methods eg. direct use values, replacement costs, hypothetical scenarios, value transfer
- issue lack of knowledge individuals how service support their wellbeing
- effective bridge econ and ecological approaches but policy dominated econ narrow vision


Costanza et al (1997)
Value ecosystem services

- econ value biosphere at $16-54 trillion annually but economies stop w/o ecosystem services thus value infinite
- decisions society makes about ecosystems imply valuation just not explicitly
- market vs conservation not factor in market
- willingness to pay - depends individuals outlook - if lived world sustainable, socially fair willingness to pay v diff results and value ecosystem services increase
- large value beyond market eg. waste treatment $2.3 trillion year
- need national accounting reflect ecosystem and natural capital


Boyd (2011)
Ecosystem Services

- modern society driven finance, naturally try value nature through monetary means BUT is econ valuation flawed like econ system
- should value monetary - reach wider audience, make clear the econ value that is there, emphasis hidden value, clear fact value environmentalists utilise, could become part GDP - social distance, governance, inclusion ecological in considerations
- shouldn't - calculation value drains resources conservation, lot politics driven emotions, ethics not numbers anyway, intrinsic value, willingness to pay depend education level, ignorance (can value easier if closer everyday life, most ecological not) - if we don't engage, perceive its value pos less
- non-market valuation eg. hedonic - eg. housing near green space value premium, travel cost (amount pay to visit nature) etc
- most valuations ecosystem services incomplete
- value in relation to humans eg. how many depend water source


Houses of Parliament (2011)
Ecosystem Service Valuation / Ecosystem Approach / Natural Capital

- econ value not transform policy but help
- UK National Ecosystem Assessment methods monetary value ecosystem services
- hard determine non market values
- If loss ecosystem how anticipated in econ value
- humans value ecosystem services benefits differently at different times / places - cultural human difference
- market short-term gains often put over long-term ecological benefits
- cost-benefit analysis use policy

- ecosystem approach aims ensure govs balance natural resource use w / conservation - UK National Ecosystem Assessment part of this
- strategy integrated management land, water, living resources promotes conservation and sustainability
- decisions need account long-term things like climate regulation of ecosystem services
- value of loss of benefits from changes ecosystem services can be used to increase decision-making transparency
- mapping ecosystem services to influence gov policy

- Hard agree econ values benefits natural capital if hidden costs / no market value


Houses of Parliament (2007)
Ecosystem Services

- humans benefit
- supporting, provisioning, regulation, cultural services
- ecosystems approach - integrated management land, water, living resources promotes conservation and sustainable use
- UNEP advocate use markets / payments ecosystem services to ensure services paid for / providers reimbursed = incentives ecosystem protection
- WWF trying map and value ecosystem services
- need integrate ecosystem services policy / gov


Houses of Parliament (2016)

UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment report highlighted importance incorporating natural env into national accounting frameworks - way achieve = natural capital valuation


Houses of Parliament (2012)

GDP not good measure wellbeing given wellbeing depends env and GDP measures monetary value goods and services produced country


Adams (2014)
Value of Valuing Nature

- valuing nature econ terms not always good conservation
- ecosystems services expresses human dependence ecosystem - econ value for decision-making
- attraction ecosystem services concept = value depends biodiversity so can't increase value by destruction so biodiversity gets protected
- hard know how much biodiversity loss b4 processes can't provide services w benefits
- identifying what services give human benefit = bias protection certain parts ecosystem
- PES (payment for ecosystem services) schemes
- changing values in markets applied to ecosystem?
- econ valuation nature only accepted where improves env and socioeconomic conditions - if not causing more destruction
- in a world run econ value, survival biotic biodiversity depends on its price (whether supports conservation or not)


Jones (2016)

- Norway society all people do well
- US casino capitalism problem
- Norway ranks first UNDP HDI 12 last 15 years
- refuse ideologies competing for power
- free from market
- top world happiness report 2017
- not base happiness / wellbeing on GDP or econ - different ways to work out