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Flashcards in Backgrounds Exam Terms Deck (72):
1

Stratigraphy

analysis of the sequence of layers, or strata, of a tell/mound at an archaeological site formed by successive periods of human occupation

2

go'el/kinsman redeemer

technical term for one who had certain legal rights and obligations towards fellow clan members, such as legally representing them in order to restore property to an impoverished relative, to marry the widow of a relative without a male heir, and to avenge the death of a relative

3

Hitite Suzerainty treaties

late Bronze Age treaties to which scholars have compared the form of the covenant made by Moses between God and the Israelites

4

the "Catastrophe"

collapse of the Late Bronze Age city state political and economic system (near the Trojan War)

5

Holy of Holies/Holiest Place/Inner Sanctum

designation of the innermost chamber of Jerusalem Temple's interior space where the symbol of Yahweh's through, Arc of the Covenant, was kept and where the invisible presence and glory of God was located behind a veil that was only entered through by the high priest on the Day of Atonement

6

Canon

Greek word meaning "reed" and referring to one that would be used for measurement, specifically for purposes of judgement

7

Hebrew Canon

TNK
T-Torah/Pentatuech
N- Nevi'im (prophets)
K- Ketuvim (writings)
no clear evidence of how it formed

8

Roman Catholic Canon

Contains the apopcrypha but does not separate it out from the other books.
-Pentateuch
-Histories
-Poetical/Wisdom Books
-Prophets

9

Protestant Canon

Leaves out the apopcrypha and contains a similar arrangement to the Roman Catholic Canon
-Pentateuch
-Histories
-Poetical/Wisdom Books
-Prophets

10

textual criticism

the methodology of determining the wording to be followed when discrepancies occur; a way of assessing a text through critical comparison of its different parts

11

Septuagint or LXX

the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, means 70

12

Targums

Aramaic translations and paraphrases

13

Peshitta

Syriac translation, simple

14

Vulgate

Latin translation

15

inner-biblical interpretation

when a later biblical text interprets an earlier one

16

Christological interpretation

focus on proving Jesus' Messiahship, a way of defending Christ's Kingship

17

Persharim

biblical text is first quoted then interpretation added (similar to rabbinic literature) It applies texts to the author's current situation with assumption that the text written long go refers to the later author's time period

18

Midrashim

commentary or homily collections from rabbinical interpretation based on the Bible being divine speech and shouldn't be limited to normal rules of human speech

19

Peshat

contextual meaning, clearer meaning than that of Midrashim; simple meaning of text. This term is difficult to define.

20

allegory/allergorical interpretation

something used by Greek philosophers to interpret Homer and poets. Used by philosophers to interpret Jewish scriptures; it is the use of story to explain and discover meaning of Scripture

21

four senses of scripture

Biblical interpretation changed remarkably throughout the years. Focus in early church was Christological, middle ages was on inserting people of that era into the interpretation. Renaissance furthered that

22

historical-critical method

an inductive approach that sets aside the authoritative qualities of the Bible, an effort to determine what actually was historical

23

source criticism

careful analysis of sources; for example, occurred in the 17th century and analyzed where the different names of God came from in Genesis

24

form criticism

the study of forms, of other instances of similar "stories" or "legends" cropping up in history as well as in the Bible

25

redaction criticism

started in 1930's in Germany; putting events and books together (such as adding Joshua to the Pentateuch) in order to "complete" works-showing the end result of things

26

Dead Sea Scrolls

found in Qumran near the Dead Sea in 1947, attributed to the efforts of the Essenes. Collection of Biblical text as well as hymns, regulations, commentaries, etc.

27

Adonai

Hebrew-My Lord- divine title and word generally substituted for YHWH when Bible is read aloud

28

Elohim

Hebrew-God- plural form can be translated gods and is a common noun used for an "uncommon" God

29

Yahweh

name of God and generally left unpronounced. "He who causes to be"

30

tetragrammation

the four letters for YHWH

31

apodictic law

law stated absolutely, as in Decalogue's "you shall not..."

32

causuistic law

form of law dealing with the treatment of specific cases. It is frequently in the form of "if/when... then..."

33

Baal

master, lord, husband; the chief god of the Canaannite religion, storm god

34

Asherah

Canaanite goddess, wife of El; her sacred sybol, a pole or tree, was the object of prophetic condemnation

35

Canaan

name for the region in the southern Levant part of what became biblical Israel (grandson of Noah as well)

36

Palestine

word that replaced "province of Judaea" and from the Latin spelling of Philistine. this was a way that Romans were able to degrade Jewish claim to the land

37

canonnical criticism

interpretation of text based on its final form rather than viewing it as an assemblance of preexisting units

38

chronicler

name of the unknown author of the books of Chronicles; sometimes applied to the author of Ezra and Nehemiah

39

clan

social unit composed of several families considered to be descended from a common ancestor; several clans constituted a tribe

40

covenant

contract or treaty; some covenants have specific conditions or treaty stipulations, while others are covenants of grant; often used of the relationship between God and Israel

41

suzerain

lord or ruler to whom loyalty is due in a covenant relationship

42

vassal

underlord in a covenant relationship who is granted power and control over people in a particular area in return for loyalty to the suzerain

43

cosmology

account of the origin of the cosmos

44

cult

rituals and religious practices at a place of worship.

45

Deuteronomistic history

account of the books of Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings that presents the history of Israel in the Promised Land, interpreting it a partial failure to keep the covenant faithfully and the consequences of that failure. These books show significant theological and linguistic similarities, suggesting that they have a common editor or editors.

46

Documentary Hypothesis

theory about the formation of the first 5 books of the Bible. Hypothesis holds that there are four traditions underlying these books, naming them after a chief characteristic of each.
"J" for Yahwest use of God's name, oldest material
"E" for Elohim and contains traditions from Northern Kingdom
"P" for priestly which is concerned with legalistic matters
"D" for Deuteronomy

47

Eschatology

concern with the end of time, or the end of the world as we know it, whether that involves a new historical era radically discontinuous from this one or an entire new cosmos after the destruction of this one

48

Fertile Crescent

agriculturally fertile ares of the Near East and Mesopotamia, forming an arc through the modern countries of Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Iraw

49

First Temple

build by King Solomon in 10th century BCE and destroyed by Babylonians in 586 BCE

50

Second Temple

Construction beginning in 515 BCE by the returning of exiles and continued and expanded over the course of time until its destruction in 70 CE by the Romans

51

hermeneutics

theory and practice of interpretation

52

exegesis

explanation or interpretation of the meaning of a written text

53

Pentateuch

Greek-5 scrolls-first five books of the Bible, the Torah

54

Hexateuch

Greek-6 scrolls- a scholarly grouping of the first 6books of the Bible

55

Tetrateuch

first four books of the Bible; regarded by some scholars as an edited collection to which Deuteronomy was added

56

Israel

name for both the union of 12 tribal groups of which David and Solomon were kings, and for the Northern section of this kingdom, which split off after the death of Solomon and began a separate political existence under Jeroboam

57

Judah

when the kingdom of Israel was divided after the death of Solomon, the southern portion took the name of its master tribe. The proper name became "Yehud" during the Persian period, "Ioudia" during Greek rule, and "Judaea" under the Romans. The geographical territory had also been diminished until the time of the Romans it consisted of the area around Jerusalem, south of Samaria, west of Perea, and the Dead Sea, and North of Idumea. Inhabitants were called Judaeans. Term Jew and Judiaism come form here.

58

ketib

"what is written" biblical text in its written form in contrast in certain cases to the way it is to be read aloud

59

qeri

"what is read" in the Masoretic text a word as it should be pronounced in contrast to what is written in the main text

60

Mesopotamia

Greek "between two rivers" area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers

61

Mascrah

Hebrew-"tradition"- the system of markings (vowel signs, marginal notes, cantillation and accent marks) that were added to the consonantal Hebrew text by scribal scholars in the early Middle Ages

62

Masorete

scholar of the scribal schools that in the early Middle Ages established the basic Hebrew text for the Bible, fixed its accepted pronunciation, and ensured its accurate copying and transmission by a system of markings

63

Masoretic Text

text of the Hebrew Bible, established by Jewish scholars. Consists of the Hebrew consonants, vowels signs, accent markings, and other notes. Texts derrived from this effort date from circa 900-1000 CE. it is the only complete form of the Hebrew Bible that has survived though individual manuscripts of books are among the Dead Sea Scrolls.

64

Lingua Franca

common tongue or shared language that enables people with different native languages to converse, carry on commercial relationships, etc. In the Persian period Aramaic replaced Akkadian as a lingua franca around the Near East; during the Hellenistic period Greek did the same for the lands surrounding the eastern Mediterranean

65

Phoenicians

Greek-"red purple"- territory occupied by a semitic group along the eastern Mediterranean coast, in an area roughly where modern Lebanon is. The Phoenicians were sea-going and engaged in trade across a wide area; their main cities (Tyre and Sidon) are prominent on the coast. They manufactured cloth dyed purple using a mollusk that grew along the shore. They were also responsible for the spread westward across the Mediterranean of a form of alphabetical writing from which all later alphabets, including Hebrew and Greek, were derived.

66

Philistines

group of sea-peoples who invaded and settled in on the south eastern coast of the Mediterranean in the late second millenium BCE, having been repulsed in an invasion of Egypt. The five major Philistine cites (Pentapolis) were Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, Gath, and Gaza

67

sea peoples

remnants of the Mycenean or Aegean civilizations which collapsed toward the end of the second millenium BCE. Someo of these people sailed eastward on the Mediterranean and attacked those living along the coast; they were repulsed by Egypt and settled in south west Canaan

68

shephelah

the foothills leading to the central hill country of the land of Israel

69

theophany

Greek- "appearance of God"- the temporary appearance or manifestation of a divine being in a form that can be apprehended by the human senses

70

typology

Greek- "topos" (raised design on a seal for imprinting on wax then by extension a pattern or model)- the understanding persons or events especially in the New Testament, by referring them to earlier biblical precursers

71

Zion

name of the fortified hill within Jerusalem and thus by extension an alternative name for Jerusalem itself especially in biblical poetry.

72

Merneptah Stele

Egyptian inscribed stone that includes the first mention of Israel outside of the Bible. It celebrates victories of Pharaoh Merneptah in Canaan.