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Flashcards in Bacteria Deck (113):
1

5 Toxins inherited by Lisogeny/ beta prophage encoded CHONS

Shiga like toxins/ Vero toxins
Botulinum toxin
Cholera toxin
Diphtheria toxin
Erythrogenic toxin (Scarlet fever)

2

Occurs when normal flora occupy receptor sites preventing pathogens from binding

Colonization resistance

3

Normal flora: skin

Staph epidermidis

4

Normal flora: nose

Staph aureus

5

Normal flora: Mouth

Strep viridans

6

Normal flora: dental plaque

Strep mutans

7

Normal flora: colon

Bacteroides, E. coli

8

Normal flora: vagina

Lactobacillus vaginalis, E. coli, Strep agalactiae

9

Mediate attachment of bacteria

pili

10

Strong adherence to surface of human cells

glycocalyx

11

Enzymes: spread through subcutaneous tissue

Hyaluronidase, collagenase

12

Enzymes: accelerates formation of fibrin clot coating the organisms with a layer of fibrin

Coagulase

13

Allows adherence to mucous membranes

IgA proteases

14

Enzyme: destroys both neutrophilic leukocyte and macrophages

Leukocidin

15

Bacteria with IgA proteases

SHiNe My Gong
Strep pneumoniae
H. Influenzae
N. Meningitidis
N. Gonorrhea

16

Kills cells by cleaving 60s ribosomal subunits

Shiga toxin

17

Located in the outer membrane of gram neg bacteria

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)

18

Resistance in Ab: active efflux from the cell

Tetracycline

19

Resistance in Ab: Reduced uptake into cell

Chloramphenicol

20

Resistance of Ab: Ribosomal methylation

Quinupristin/dalfopristin

21

Gram (+) cocci in clusters, catalase (+), coagulase (+)

Staph aureus

22

Gram (+) cocci in clusters, catalase (+), coagulase (-), novobiocin resistant

Staph saprophiticus

23

Gram (+) cocci in clusters, catalase (+), coagulase (-), novobiocin sensitive

Staph epidermidis

24

Staph aureus: salt tolerant on:

Mannitol salt agar

25

Stapg aureus: gold color is due to the pigment:

staphyloxanthine

26

Prevents compliment activation in staph aureus

Protein A

27

Causes marked necrosis of the skin and hemolysis on staph aureus

Alpha toxin

28

Most common cause of acute endocarditis

Staph aureus

29

Staph aureus: sequestered focus of osteomyelitis arising in the metaphysial area of long bones

Brodie abscess

30

Staph aureus: exfoliation cleaves desmoglein in desmosomes results in separation of epidermis at stratum granulosum

Scalded Skin Syndrome (Ritter disease)

31

Staph aureus: Toxic shock syndrome due to (toxin)

TSST-1 (toxic shock syndrome toxin 1)

32

Strawberry tongue

Kawasaki, scarlet fever, TSS

33

Novobiocin Sensitivity:
NO StRES

NO vobiocin
Saprophyticus Resistant
Epidermidis Sensitive

Novobiocin Sensitivity:
NO StRES

NO vobiocin
Saprophyticus Resistant
Epidermidis Sensitive

34

Most common cause of prosthetic valve endocarditis, prosthetic joints, ventriculoperitoneal shunts

Staph epidermidis

35

2nd most common cause of UTIs in sexually active women

Staph Saprophyticus

36

DOC for staph saprophyticus

Tmp-smx/ Cotrimoxazole

37

DOC for staph Epidermidis

Vancomycin (50% are methicillin resistant)

38

Gram (+) cocci in chains, catalase (-), alpha hemolytic
bile optochin sen

Strep pneumoniae

39

Gram (+) cocci in chains, catalase (-), alpha hemolytic
bile optochin res

Viridans strep

40

Gram (+) cocci in chains, catalase (-), beta hemolytic
Bacitracin res

Strep agalactiae/ Group B strep

Bacitracin Sensitivity:
B- BRAS
Group B strep res
Group A strep sen

41

Gram (+) cocci in chains, catalase (-), beta hemolytic
Bacitracin sen

Strep pyogenes

Bacitracin Sensitivity:
B- BRAS
Group B strep res
Group A strep sen

42

Gram (+) cocci in chains, catalase (-), gamma hemolytic

Group D strep

43

Virulence factor in Group A strep, spreading factor

Hyaluronidase factor

44

Virulence enzymes in Group A strep (s. pyogenes)

Hyaluronidase (spreading)
Streptokinase (fibrinolysin)
DNase (streptodornase)
C5A peptidase

45

Strep: Titers to document antecedent pharyngitis

ASO (anti streptolysin O) titer

46

Step: titer to document antecedent skin infection

Anti DNase B

47

Perioral blisters with honey colored crust caused by strep pyogenes

Impetigo contagiosum
(accumulation of neutrophils beneath stratum corneum)

48

Necrotizing fasciitis in strep pyogenes facilitated by

Exotoxin B

49

Due to erythrogenic toxin, strawberry tongue, centrifugal rash (sandpaper like rash), Pastia lines

Scarlet fever (strep pyogenes)

50

Test for susceptibility of scarlet fever

Dick test

51

Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (toxin)

Pyogenic exotoxin A

52

Cross reacting antibodies and antigens, molecular mimicry in acute rheumatic fever

M proteins

53

Most common cause of neonatal sepsis in the world

Strep agalactiae (group b strep)

54

Marantic endocarditis in pxs with abdominal malignancy

Strep bovis

55

Endocarditis in patients who underwent GIT surgery

Enterococcus faecalis (Group D strep)

56

DOC for Group D strep

Penicillin + Gentamicin

57

Optochin Sensitivity:
OVeRPass

Optochin
Viridans Resistant
Pneumoniae Sensitive

Optochin Sensitivity:
OVeRPass

Optochin
Viridans Resistant
Pneumoniae Sensitive

58

Most common cause of CAP (adults)

Strep Pneumoniae

59

Most common cause of subacute and native valve endocarditis

Strep anguis (viridans strep)

60

Most common cause of meningitis (neonates)

Group B strep
E. Coli
Listeria monocytogenesp

61

Most common cause of meningitis (children)

N. Meningitides
H. Influenza

62

Most common cause of meningitis (adults)

Strep pneumoniae

63

Spore forming gram (+) rods
Aerobic, nonmotile, box car shaped

B. Anthracis

64

Spore forming gram (+) rods
Aerobic, motile, reheated fried rice

Bacillus cereus

65

Spore forming gram (+) rods
Anaerobic, tennis racket like

Clostridium tetani

66

Spore forming gram (+) rods
Anaerobic, bulging cans

C. Botulinum

67

Spore forming gram (+) rods
Anaerobic, lecithinase, gas forming

C. Perfringes

68

Spore forming gram (+) rods
Anaerobic, pseudomemebranous

C. Difficile

69

Non- Spore forming gram (+) rods
Aerobic, nonmotile, curved, chinese characters

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

70

Non-Spore forming gram (+) rods
Aerobic, curved, tumbling motility

Listeria monocytogenes

71

Medusa head morphology

B. Anthracis

72

Virulence factors of b. Anthracis

Edema factor (cellular swelling)
Lethal factor (necrosis)
Protective antigen (mediates entry of the other two components into the cell)

73

Woolsorter's disease, prolonged latent period (2mos), massively enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes

Inhalational anthrax

74

DOC of cutaneous anthrax

Ciprofloxacin

75

DOC of inhalational/GI anthrax

Cipro + Doxy with 1 or 2 Ab (rifampin, vanco, peni, imipenem, clinda, clarith)

76

Pseudomembranous pharyngitis

Corynebacterium diphtheria

77

Granulomatosis infantiseptica

Listeria monocytogenes (transplacental transmission)

78

Unpasteurized milk products

Listeria monocytogenes

79

Gram (-) diplococci, encapsulated,
ferments Maltose and Glucose

N. Meningitidis

80

Gram (-) diplococci, encapsulated,
ferments Glucose

N. gonorrhea

81

NEISSERIA

Neisseria MeninGitidis
ferments Maltose and Glucose

Neisseria Gonorrhea
ferments Glucose Only

NEISSERIA

Neisseria MeninGitidis
ferments Maltose and Glucose

Neisseria Gonorrhea
ferments Glucose Only

82

Most severe for of meningococcemia,
Adrenal insufficiency

Waterhouse Friderichsen

83

DOC for N. meningitidis

Penicillin G

84

Thayer Martin medium contains: (antibiotics)

Vancomycin (gram pos)
Colistin (gram neg)
Nystatin (fungi)

85

Complement deficiencies in late acting complement components C5-C9
(Cannot form membrane attack complexes)

Neisseria

86

Usual co infection with chlamydia trachomatis

N. Gonorrhea

87

Most common cause of urethritis

N. Gonorrhea

88

Most common cause of PID

N. Gonorrhea

89

Complication of PID sec to n. Gonorrhea
Perihepatis: violin string adhesions

Fitz Hugh Curtis syndrome

90

Most common cause of septic arthritis in sexually active adults

N. Gonorrhea

91

DOC of N. gonorrhea

Ceftriaxone + Doxy due to chlamydia infxn
Uncomplicated: Cefixime

92

DOC in refractory N. gonorrhea

Spectinomycin (aminoglycoside)

93

DOC of N. gonorrhea in pregnant

Azithromycin

94

Human bite infection

Eikenella corrodens

95

Gram (-) rods
Enriched chocolate agar, polyribitol phosphate capsule

H. Influenza

96

Gram (-) rods
Bordet Gengou Agar, whooping cough

Bordatella pertussis

97

Gram (-) rods
Poorly gram staining, silver stain, charcoal yeast agar, airconditioning

Legionella pneumophila

98

Epiglottitis (cherry red)
Meningitis
Otitis media
Pneumonia

hEMOPhilus influenza

99

DOC of H. Influenza

Ceftriaxone

100

DOC of Bordetella pertussis

Erythromycin

101

Potiac fever, atypical pneumonia

Legionella pneumophila

102

Facultative intracellular bacteria

Some Bugs May Live FacultativeLY

Salmonella
Brucella
Mycobacterium
Listeria
Francisella
Legionella
Yersinia

103

DOC for Legionella

Azithromycin, erythromycin

104

Most common cause of Atypical pneumonia

Mycoplasma pneumonia
Legionella pneumophila
Chlamydophila pneumonia

105

Gram (-) rods
Lactose fermenter, green sheen

E. Coli

106

Gram (-) rods
Lactose fermenter, urease (+),
ESBL ( extended spectrum beta lactamase)

Klebsiella pneumoniae

107

Gram (-) rods
Comma shaped, motile, oxidase (+)

Vibrio cholera

108

Gram (-) rods
Comma shaped, microaerophilic, skirrows agar

Campylobacter jejuni

109

Gram (-) rods
Comma shaped, urease (+)

H. Pylori

110

Non- lactose fermenting, gram (-) rods
Motile, oxidase (-), H2s producer

Salmonella spp.

111

Non- lactose fermenting, gram (-) rods
Motile, oxidase (-), H2s nonproducer

Shigella spp.

112

Non lactose fermenting, gram (-) rods
Swarming oxidase (-), H2s producer, urease

Proteus mirabilis

113

Non lactose fermenting, gram (-) oxidase (+), H2s nonproducer, obligate aerobe

Paeudomonas aeruginosa