Basic Science Flashcards Preview

ABOS Part 1 > Basic Science > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basic Science Deck (87):
1

Mechanism to decrease effectiveness of beta lactams

Altered membrane-binding protein

2

Mechanism to decrease effectiveness of quinolones

Mutations of bacterial DNA gyrase

3

Mechanism to decrease effectiveness of Tetracyclines

increased tetracycline efflux, ribosome protection, and tetracycline modification

4

Mechanism to decrease effectiveness of rifampin

Alteration of RNA polymerase

5

Vitronectin

important receptor involved in Osteoclasts attach to bone surfaces by means of integrins and then seal the space below.

also integrin avß3

6

RANK

receptor on osteoclasts that when activated by RANKL stimulates osteoclasts. RANKL is found on osteoblasts.

7

Osteoprotegerin (OPG)

decreases osteoclast differentiation by it’s interaction with RANKL (receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand). OPG is made by osteoblasts and binds to RANKL (RANK Ligand) to competitively inhibit RANK binding.

8

PDGF (Platelet Derived Growth Factor)

involved in fracture healing. It is chemotactic and attracts inflammatory cells to the fracture site and is important in early fracture healing, especially the hematoma formation.

9

TGF-B (transforming growth factor Beta)

induces mesenchymal cells to produce type II collagen & proteoglycans. It is important in the early stages of fracture callus formation.

10

Doxycycline MOA

inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the 30s ribosomal subunit.

11

clindamycin MOA

inhibit the 50s ribosomal subunit.

12

Penicillin MOA

cell wall synthesis.

13

vancomycin MOA

inhibit cell wall synthesis.

14

linezolid MOA

inhibit the 50s ribosomal subunit.

15

Sulfonamides MOA

folic acid inhibitors.

16

Rifampin MOA

RNA synthesis inhibitor.

17

Inhibits cell-wall production by preventing peptidoglycan cross-linkage

Cephalosporins

18

Inhibits cell-wall production by interfering with the addition of cell-wall subunits

Glycopeptides - vancomycin

19

Inhibits translation through irreversible binding of the 30S ribosomal subunit

Aminoglycosides

20

Inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase F

Rifamycins

21

Inhibits DNA gyrase

Fluoroquinolones

22

amphotericin

binds to sterols and disrupting the cell membrane also nystatin

23

Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma

PAX3-FKHR fusion gene - 1:13
PAX7-FKHR fusion gene - 2:13

24

Ewings Sarcoma

EWS-Fli1 fusion gene - 11:22

25

Multiple hereditary exostosis

EXT1, EXT2, EXR3
Multiple Osteochondromas

26

Trabecular bone is remodeled through the formation of?

Howship lacunae : After the pit is formed, osteoclasts are replaced by osteoblasts that form new bone matrix

27

Synovial sarcoma

SYT-SSX fusion gene - t(x,18)
foot
15-20

28

Parosteal osteosarcoma

Ring chromosomes

29

Stress

force per cross-sectional area

30

Strain

Strain is the deformation of a material in response to an applied force

change in length/original length

31

Modulus of Elasticity

slope of the stress-strain curve
measure of an object's ability to resist deformation under an external load.

32

Toughness

the area under the stress-strain curve and is a measure of the amount of energy a material can absorb before failure

33

Creep

increased displacement over time attributable to the same force

34

What molecules have been shown to promote fibrosis during muscle injury

TGF-ß1

35

important trophic factors in muscle regeneration

Insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1)
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)

36

What dominant intracellular proteins become directly phosphorylated as a result of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) binding to its receptors - See more at:

SMADS

37

myasthenia gravis

loss of acetylcholine receptors secondary to autoimmune antibodies at the NM junction.

38

Mann-Whitney U test

used when data are nonparametric, meaning either not normally distributed or variances are not equal among groups

39

Low Molecular weight Heparin

bind to antithrombin
increases the ability of antithrombin to inhibit thrombin and Factor Xa

40

Warfarin

Inhibition of vitamin K-dependent carboxylation
intervenes with cyclic interconversion of vitamin K and its 2, 3 epoxide
leading to hepatic synthesis of factors II, VII, IX, and X with reduced activity

41

Fondaparinux

Inhibition of factor Xa through antithromin binding

42

Enoxaparin

Inhibition of factor Xa through antithromin binding

43

Aspirin

Binding of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2

44

Argatroban

YOUR RESPONSE: 4- Direct thrombin inhibition

45

Hemophilia

X linked
Factor 8
Hemarthrosis

46

Von Willebrand disease is a and not hemarthroses.

lack of von Willebrand factor that leads to decreased platelet aggregation;

mucosal bleeding

47

Protein C and S deficiencies

AD

lead to thrombosis

protein C and S shut off thrombin formation.

48

Calcitonin

directly interfering with osteoclast maturation via receptors

inhibits phosphate reabsorption
decreases calcium reabsorption in the kidneys

49

Dkk-1 (dickkopf-1) & sclerostin

inhibit the binding of the Wnt molecule to receptors LRP5/6

50

Wnt

binds LRP5/6

inhibits phosphorylation of the ß-catenin

51

ß-catenin

part of Wnt pathway
osteoblast formation differentiation

52

Dystrophin

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)

X-linked muscular disorder

53

Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2)

cleidocranial dysplasia

54

Mutations of collagen type

OI

55

Neurofibromin

protein product of the NF-1 gene

associated with neurofibromatosis

56

FGFR3

achondroplasia

57

Fibrin

Marfan syndrome

58

Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein mutations

pseudoachondroplasia

have short stature (3.5-4.5 feet)

Radiographically, patient appearance is normal at birth but severely abnormal with growth.

multiple joint deformities and normal facies

59

COL2A

spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias

facies with mild midface flattening, short necks, and barrel-shaped chests

60

Drug Resistance : quinolones

Mutations of bacterial DNA gyrase

61

Drug Resistance : beta -lactams

Altered membrane-binding protein

62

Drug Resistance: Tetracyclines

increased tetracycline efflux, ribosome protection, and tetracycline modification

63

Drug Resistance: rifampin

Alteration of RNA polymerase

64

Integrin

promotes tumor cell attachment to bone during metastasis

65

Heuter-Volkmann

bone placed in longitudinal tension will tend to stimulate longitudinal growth, and that compressive longitudinal forces inhibit longitudinal growth

66

Wolff's law

bone remodels in response to mechanical stress, with the correlate that increased stress causes increased growth, and decreased stress leads to bone loss.

67

Adult Lyme Dx Abx

amoxicillin
doxycycline
cefuroxime

68

PITX1-TBX4

Club foot,

Single nuclear polymorphism (SNP)

69

COLIA-1

osteoporosis

70

COL5A / COL3A

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

71

Activating missense mutations of GNAS

Fibrous Dysplasia

72

Fusion transcripts of HEY1-NCOA2

Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

73

Ring chromosomes with CDK4 and MDMK amplification

low-grade central osteosarcoma or parosteal osteosarcoma

74

Fibrous Dysplasia

Activating missense mutations of GNAS

75

CDH11-USP6

aneurysmal bone cysts

76

Poland syndrome /Sprengel deformity

interruption of the embryonic subclavian blood supply

77

Fibular hemimelia

NO known genetic component
absent ACL
absent rays of the foot
tarsal coalition
hypoplastic or aplastic fibula
leg-length discrepancy
femoral and tibial hypoplasia
lower extremity angular deformity

78

Distal arthrogryposis

MYH3 mutation
gene which codes for myosin heavy chain 3

79

The NF1

Chromosome 17, codes for neurofibromin, a tumor suppressor
autosomal dominant inheritance
50% of new cases are due to sporadic mutation

80

Dystrophic scoliosis

typical of NF1
scalloped vertebra
penciled ribs
severe rotation
sharp and short (4-6 vertebrae) kyphoscoliosis

81

MYH3 mutation

Distal arthrogryposis

82

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

Chromosome 11
near the IGF gene
Neonatal hypoglycemia
macroglossia
visceromegaly
hemihypertrophy
embryonal tumors, especially Wilms tumor

83

Etanercept

Soluble receptor that binds TNF-α

84

Infliximab

Monoclonal antibody that binds TNF-α

85

Warfarin􏰀

􏰀inhibits 􏰀clotting 􏰀factors 􏰀II,􏰀VII,􏰀IX,􏰀X.

inhibition􏰀 of􏰀 hepatic 􏰀enzymes, 􏰀vitamin 􏰀K􏰀epoxide = lack􏰀 of􏰀 carboxylation 􏰀of􏰀 vitamin􏰀 K􏰁 dependent􏰀 proteins 􏰀(II,􏰀VII,􏰀IX,􏰀X)

86

Factor V Leiden

caused 􏰀by􏰀 an􏰀abnormality􏰀 of􏰀 factor􏰀 V􏰀 that 􏰀leads 􏰀to 􏰀decreased 􏰀inactivation􏰀 of􏰀 factor 􏰀Va􏰀 by􏰀 activated 􏰀protein􏰀C 􏰀(aPC)􏰀 and􏰀 increased 􏰀blood􏰀 clotting.􏰀

Single AA substitution

87

LMWH

Factor Xa