What are the bony structures underlying the epithelial layer on the lateral side of the nasal cavities called?
Describe the role of the nasal cavities.
They warm and humidify the air passing through the nasal cavities.
Describe the resistance of the nasal cavities and the implications for exercise.
High resistance - when exercising, breathing is mainly done through the mouth because that is a path of lower resistance and more water is lost
What are the paranasal sinuses? What is their role?
4 sets of blind-ended out-pocketings of the lateral walls of the nasal cavities
Four Paranasal Sinuses: Frontal, Maxillary, Ethmoid, Sphenoid
They reduce the weight of the facial bones, provide a crumple zone for facial trauma, act as resonators for the voice and insulate sensitive structures from the rapid temperature fluctuations in the nasal cavities.
What are the three parts of the pharynx and where are they found?
Nasopharynx - behind the nasal cavities
Oropharynx - posterior to the tongue, consists of lymphoid tissue
Laryngopharynx - after the epiglottis
What is the larynx?
Cartilaginous structure that is supported from the roof of the mouth from the hyoid bone
What structure is attached to the vocal ligaments which open and close entry to the larynx?
How many cartilage rings are around the trachea?
Describe the anterior and posterior lining of the trachea.
Anterior lining is epithelium
Posterior lining has trachealis muscle - this is needed for swallowing
Describe the changes in number of cartilage rings and smooth muscle that changes with branching of the bronchi.
Number of cartilage rings decreases
Amount of smooth muscle increases